How Darkness Prevailed.

Luis Quispe lquispe at
Thu May 16 22:47:37 MDT 1996

      [Part 2. For the New Flag: Speech by President Gonzalo]


We have been saying for a few days that we wanted to talk on
certain issues.  There are moments when men resort to talking in
symbols, metaphors or in less intellectual forms.  But we would
prefer that our group of Communists speak for us in a direct and
broad manner.

We want to briefly talk about how the history of today will be
seen decades from now. We place ourselves in a plan of
revolutionary imagination and look backwards from the future,
this is useful and also serves to fortify the spirit.  We have
clear minds, resolute wills and inextinguishable passions, a
revolutionary imagination will increase them even more. Let's
think about it and allow our imagination speak to us from the
future.  Let us place ourselves decades ahead in the future, in
the second part of the coming century.

We are in the final part of the XX Century, very soon we will see
the years going by and they will pass even faster as we advance
towards the transformation of our society in the third millennium
of humanity. The end of the 1990's means the end of one
millennium and the beginning of another in which Communism will
be definitively stamped on history and humanity will take a leap
>from the realm of necessity into the realm of liberty.

We should think of the second half of the next Century.  History
will be written by us and those who will follow: us, the future
Communists, because we are an inexhaustible force.  When children
begin to read and men begin to remember, they will have a history
to read and will recount:

               I.  HOW DARKNESS PREVAILED.

In this society, there was a time in which darkness prevailed. It
does not imply that everything was dark, but it means that
darkness prevailed.  In our country, in our America, there is an
old and long tradition and a slow history which should be known.
We need to search for the profound roots of who we are, not
because we are nationalists, but because we have historical
particularities and nobody can make revolution if they do not
have historical roots.  We are an old society.

Some twenty thousand years ago, man arrived to these lands in a
very primitive state; ten thousand years passed.  In about four
to six thousand years they began to develop agriculture and basic
shelter to protect themselves from extreme weather conditions and
they also started sewing covers to protect their bodies.  Two
thousand years later we already had very productive agriculture
and became into a great agrarian system. The community develops
and the Ayllu starts to be forged: a specific agrarian
communal expression of our people.  Thereafter, a surplus was
generated along with the creation of class differences, property
and the State.  Approximately 700 hundred years ago the State
began to develop and expand, as the State grew, exploitation came
into existence generating oppression. Thus, the people were
divided between the oppressors and the oppressed.  Also, these
lands were divided into small regions, big confederations and
kingdoms: Huari [Trans. cultural group preceding the
Incas] is an example.  Time passed and the Incan empire was
formed. Then came Inca Pachacutec who brought more imperial order
and reorganized the State, making it stronger.  This shows that
in ancient Peru there were nations that exploited others.  The
existence of classes was evident, there were exploited and
exploiters. However, such a petrified kingdom, it did
not last long.  Strange men came and destroyed the existing
agrarian order.  But it is not true that the people of the
Americas felt on their knees.  People resisted and defended the
system of exploitation that they had created, but it was a rotten
system based on exploitation, and it collapsed when confronted
with a superior order.

Thus, in our country the system collapsed and a long and vicious
process of feudal exploitation began.  Our people were taken to
the mines, their blood was transformed into gold and silver for
Europe.  We view the development of European capitalism as the
product of the flesh and blood of our ancestors.

Centuries passed and a system of criollo [Trans. mestizaje]
people develop.  There were rebellions, especially the
mobilization and uprisings of the peasants in the XVIII Century,
which rocked the system to its foundations.

The worldwide actions of capitalism prosper along the spirit of
emancipation of the masses; and since the classes are not
eliminated nor the problems of land and sovereignty resolved,
these two old problems continue to persist.

The XIX Century involved the transformation of the feudal order
to a semi-feudal order, and from a colonial order to a
semi-colonial one.  We changed masters from one group of
Europeans to others. From Spanish hands into English ones.  The
new exploiters were enthroned and they were more cruel and
sinister than the previous ones, but the people always rose
up to fight without truce in an arduous class struggle with
periods in which the system was shaken up.

In the latter part of the last Century a new imperialist order
surged, the United States of America. It arrived early in these
lands, and in the 1920's its domination was consolidated. Hence,
at that stage of our history darkness prevailed in our lands.  At
the same time, a new class emerged, the proletariat, and a new
chapter begins.

The New Flag
lquispe at

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