Luis Quispe lquispe at blythe.org
Wed May 29 18:27:25 MDT 1996

           [Part 2 of a series of 4 articles]


The work of MARX uncovers and clearly exposes the dynamic
relations between:

1. The economic base (material productive forces of society),
2. The social relations of production (property and exploitation
   relations), and
3. The superstructure (social classes' consciousness with the
corresponding ideological domination stemming from the economic
base and exploitation relations)

Marx in Volume I of "Das Kapital" tells us: "It is in the circuit
of circulation or the exchange of commodities, within which the
purchase and sale of labor-power evolves, where in reality the
true `paradise of man's rights' is found.  Within such boundaries
only freedom, equality and Bentham rule (Bentham: 18th century
English bourgeois economist who developed a theory of
utilitarianism].  This `freedom' is that of the buyer and seller
of a commodity (i.e. of labor power) and it does not obey any
other law except that of their `free will'.  They contract as
free and equal `men' before the law, the contract is a final
result in which the buyers and sellers only contract as `owners
of commodities' exchanging equivalent for equivalent.

`Property' since each one disposes and can only do so, with that
which is one's own; and `Bentham' since those who take part in
these acts are only motivated by their self interests.  The only
force that joins them and relates them is the force of their
self-centered interest, their selfish gain, their private
interest.  Precisely because of this, each one protects only
one's own self and nobody cares for the others, contributing all
of them, thanks to a pre-allocated harmony in things or under an
all-knowing providence, to realize the tasks for their mutual
benefit, their collective convenience, their social interest.

When abandoning the circuit of simple circulation or commodity
exchange, where vulgar profiteers search for Capital's ideas,
conceptions and criteria for wage-labor, it seems that the
characters in our drama change: the old owner of money opens the
march transformed into a capitalist, and behind him comes the
owner of labor-power transformed into a worker of his; the first
comes with vigorous steps and contemptuous smile, bustling about,
the second -the worker- is timid and hesitant, in a bad mood, as
someone who is going to sell his own skin and knows the faith
that awaits him: to work his skin off."

Here Marx synthesizes the relation between the capitalist system
of purchase-sale of labor power and the paradise for the rights
of man.  He specifies the class character of each one of these
rights: freedom for the buyer of labor power, and freedom for the
worker to sell his labor power, the equality of commodity owners,
that of the capitalist owning capital, and that of the worker
whose only property is his labor power and the liberty to dispose
of the property that each one has.  If one has capital, then one
has the right to dispose of it as one pleases: through more
exploitation. if one has only labor power, then one has the right
to sell one's skin off --to work one's skin off for the
capitalist.  Finally, Marx exposes the bourgeois basis for
centering only on the individual, relying on selfish egotism, on
self-centered interest, and on the believe in a pre-allocated
order or under some kind of God for these rights.

In "The misery of Philosophy", Marx deals with liberty (freedom):
"Do not be deceived by the abstract word `freedom'.  Whose
freedom? It is not the freedom of each individual in relation to
another. It is the freedom of Capital to crush the worker."
PRESIDENT GONZALO commenting on this subject during a meeting of
the PCP-Political Bureau, July 1990, in midst of the People's
War, expressed "Marx himself helps us to understand him; since
there is so much talk of freedom, then, from what? from who? from
what class? for who? Freedom of the bourgeoisie to crush the
worker! To crush not only the proletarian class, but also all
those who work through sweat and tears! Marx already told us, so
much talk of liberty, and so much talk that this system derives
>from liberty, without understanding that such liberty is the
ideological product of the actual capitalist system. This is what
today we understand as liberty."

In "The Holy Family," under the title of "On the Jewish Question"
paragraph I `Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens',
Article 2, Marx establishes: "These rights (the natural and
indispensable rights) are equality, security and property.  What
does freedom consist of? It is the right to do everything which
does not harm others, the limit is determined by law, and deals
with man's freedom as an isolated entity, refolded on itself. But
such human right to freedom is not based on the union of man with
man, but rather on the separation of man by man. This is the
right to disassociation, the right of the restricted individual,
limited by the individual himself." A clear criticism of
bourgeois freedom; Marx continues: "Man's practical application,
that of liberty, is the human right to private property.  The
human right to private property is, therefore, the right to enjoy
one's property and to dispose of it arbitrarily (as one pleases),
without concern for other men, as existing independent from
society, it is the right to selfish interest. This is the problem
of the human right to liberty. Such individual freedom and its
own application constitute the fundamental basis of bourgeois
society.  Thus, bourgeois freedom is in essence the human right
to private property; and private property is the right to enjoy
one's property and to dispose of it for one's self interest, this
constitutes the fundamental basis for bourgeois society.  A
society which causes man to find in it not the realization, but
rather the limitation of man's liberty, and it proclaims above
all the human right to enjoy and to dispose as one wishes of
one's goods, products, fruits of labor and industry.  In essence,
this is what the human right to private property proclaims.  Such
is the freedom and fundamental base of bourgeois society.  It
links freedom to private property and self interest. These two
cannot be separated. When  speaking of freedom, one is speaking
of private property, the right to egocentric interest.  This is
its fundamental basis. It is the basis of trampling liberalism
and neo-liberalism.  We have seen this in the analysis of Peru's
Constitution and international laws. It is nothing more than the
right to selfish interest for the capitalist class and for
submission to imperialism. Therefore, what Marx expressed is
completely valid.  Equality, Marx observes, is considered as
linked to private property and self interest, and this equality
is nothing more than each man being equally considered as a
single individual entity, you individual entity, we all
individual entities, but each one with one's own selfish
interest.  It recognizes that everyone has equal right or self
interest, and such selfish interest is to grab property, to enjoy
it, and to exercise it as one's right in relation to each other.
He observes that `security' is the supreme social concept in
bourgeois society, the police concept.  According to this, all of
society only exists to guarantee the self-preservation, the
rights and property of all of its members.

>From the above, it is understood that human rights are the rights
of the bourgeoisie -the capitalist class- based on a conception
which centers in the individual as owner of natural rights,
corresponding to one's condition as individual; indispensable
rights, in so far as these are linked to one's freedom, which is
freedom as a human right to private property. This human right is
one's right to private property, as being able to arbitrarily
dispose of one's property and enjoy it, which in turn corresponds
to one's right to selfish interest, and such is the fundamental
basis of bourgeois society.  From this criteria derives equality,
that is each individual's right to equally exercise the right for
one's own self interest, the right to private property, one's
right to selfish interest. Security, the supreme concept of
bourgeois society; stands out the police concept, Marx says,
since a bourgeois society requires machinery that guarantees the
rights of individuals, and their right to private property." [All
comments from President Gonzalo, Central Committee, PCP, II
Plenum, Oct.-Feb. 1991/92].

LENIN.  President Gonzalo in "Elections No! People's War Yes!"
reaffirms Lenin's analysis of this same problem as synthesized in
"Political Economy in the Era of the Dictatorship of the
Proletariat", part V, concerning socialism, social classes, and
dictatorship of the proletariat: "Under capitalism the
proletariat is an oppressed class, lacking all property of the
means of production, the only class directly and totally opposed
to the bourgeoisie, and therefore the only class capable of being
revolutionary to the end."  "The general phrases about liberty,
equality and democracy are in reality nothing more than the blind
repetition of concepts copied on the mold of commodity
production. To use these phrases for attempting to resolve the
concrete tasks in the proletariat's dictatorship equals in
principle, to completely go over towards the theoretical
positions of the capitalists.  From the proletariat's point of
view the problem is formulated as follows: freedom in relation to
the oppression of what social class? Equality between what social
classes? Democracy based on property or based on the struggle to
abolish private property? etc".  In the first question, Lenin
clearly leads us to view the proletariat's revolutionary role as
opposed to the capitalists' reactionary role.  In the following
questions, the class character of freedom, equality and democracy
is so clear that it is enough to transcribe these.

MAO TSETUNG.  Also in the text -PCP's II Plenum- President
Gonzalo transcribes: "In relation to freedom and democracy Mao
Tse tung teaches us `In reality, in the world there is only
concrete freedom and concrete democracy, and there are no freedom
and democracy in the abstract.  In a society where class struggle
exists, there is freedom for the exploiting classes to exploit
the working people, there is no freedom for not exploiting the
people.  There is democracy for the capitalists, and not for the
proletariat and the rest of the working people. In some
capitalist countries certain Communist Parties are allowed legal
existence, but only to the extent that these do not endanger the
fundamental interests of the capitalists. There is no tolerance
beyond this limit.  Those who ask for freedom and democracy in
abstract believe that democracy is an end and not a mean.
Marxism teaches us that democracy is part of the superstructure
and belongs to the category of politics.  This means that, in the
end, democracy serves the economic base.  The same occurs with
freedom.  Both democracy and freedom are relative, not absolute,
and have surged and developed in the course of history.  In the
ranks of the people democracy is co-related to centralism, and
freedom goes with discipline.  These are two distinct aspects in
a single whole, contrary and at the same time united to each
other. We should not arbitrarily emphasize one aspect to deny the
other. In the ranks of the people one cannot leave out democracy,
nor exclude centralism.  Such unity of democracy and centralism,
of freedom and discipline, constitutes our democratic centralism.
Under this [socialist] system the people enjoy broad democracy
and freedom, but at the same time must stay within the limits of
socialist discipline.  This truth is well understood by the broad
masses of people'.  In this way Mao Tsetung, upholding the
proletariat's perspective regarding rights and freedoms founded
and developed by Marx and Lenin, re-emphasizes the class
character of such aspects, their capitalist ideological base
centered on the individual, on selfish interest, and the relation
between such rights and the social system."

Up to here we have seen the proletariat's Marxist-Leninist-
Maoist, Gonzalo Thought conception.  Now let us deal with the
process followed around the world by the financial oligarchy in
relation to human rights.

Document of the Peru People's Movement (MPP), May 1996.
Published by The New Flag, 30-08 Broadway, Suite 159
Queens, NY 11106. WEB PAGE http://www.blythe.org/peru-pcp

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