I know who Chavez is.

Louis Proyect lnp3 at SPAMpanix.com
Tue Aug 10 13:22:15 MDT 1999

>Y yo coincido en que posiblemente no hubiera ningún fundamento
>jurídico en ningún país de América Latina para la existencia de
>escuelas racialmente segregadas, mientras que la segregación sexual
>sí estaba consagrada en los estatutos de muchas escuelas (quizás en
>un tiempo fuera la mayoría). Pero en Cuba --país mulato, blanco y
>negro-- se dió el caso de que a pesar de no estar estatuida la
>segregación racial en las escuelas, hubo muchísimas escuelas privadas
>donde no era posible encontrar un solo niño (o niña) que no fuera de
>piel blanca.

Private Schools in Cuba were abolished in 1961. Before 1961, roughly 15
percent of grade school students and 30 percent of high school students
attended private schools which were primarily white. This had led to a 2
tier system in which under-financed public schools were attended by blacks
and poorer whites, while the private schools were confined to the
privileged elite. This is the state of affairs, of course, that is emerging
in the United States.

After the abolition of private schools, the bulk of Cuban students started
attending fully integrated schools where blacks and whites received equal

The Cuban revolution also attacked racism in housing. It instituted an
immediate 50 percent reduction in rent and eventually ownership of the
houses was granted to the former tenants. Thus, more blacks as a percentage
of the population own their homes in Cuba than in any country in the world
according to Lourdes Casal ("The Position of Blacks in Brazilian and Cuba
Society", Minority Rights Group Report No. 7, pp. 11-27)

Getting women out of the home to join men as equal partners in the
work-force has been a real challenge to the woman's movement historically.
How has the Cuban revolution fared?

Before 1953 and 1974, there was a 14.1 percent increase in the number of
salaried women in the national work force. Even more significant were the
changes in the kind of work women did. In 1953 domestic work represented 25
percent of the total female work force, but by 1970 this occupational
category had disappeared.

Another change involved the elimination of underage women in the
work-force. In 1953, women ten to fourteen years old represented 10.9
percent of the work-force, but by 1970 nearly no women workers could be
found in this age category.

Finally, certain sectors of industry, which had been traditionally closed
to women before the revolution now saw the highest percentage of female
employment, including textiles, beverages, tobacco, chemicals, food and
graphic arts. So reports Max Azicri in "International Journal of Women's
Studies", Vol. 2, No. 1 (1981).

Louis Proyect


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