ÁÎ×Ó¹â HenryC.K.Liu ¹ù¤l¥ú hliu at
Sat Dec 25 13:21:16 MST 1999

Yes, Louis, Ethiopia was an exception to the trend of European invincibility in
Africa but not an exception to the principle of the need of national defense.
If Ethiopia had merely looked toward a supranational authority to save itself
from Italian agression, rather than relying on its own military strength, it
would have been conquered, as it finally was in 1934 despite League of Nation
sanctions against Italy.

As to whether resistence to foreign domination retards domestic social reform,
the options appear open.  The Battle of Aduwa took place in 1895, 5 decades
after the failed Revolutions of 1848 were put down by force, and 24 years after
the brutal supression of the 1871 Paris Commune.
But the Enropean social movements were mercilessly put down not by civilian
police forces but national military machines.  Further, by 1871, the unity of
Italy, Germany and the US had been confirmed by war, with the result that all
major states thereafter maintaing large peace time standing armies up to that
time in history.  Moreover, right ring politics became entrenched in all
military institutions.

The Russia revolution, while a true social revolution, was not a nationalist
struggle, because Russian feudalism had not been victimized by foreign
imperialism.   The Chinese revolutions, which first succeeded in 1911, followed
bourgeois liberal lines until after the October Revolution.  The Chinese
Communists were the first revolutionary nationalists in Asia and perhaps in
world history.  It is not wrong to call Western imperialism the mid-wife of
Chinese social radicalism beacuse socialism emerged a the clear alternative to
a unseemy alliance between decrepit feudalism and capitalistic imperialism.
Without having been vitimized by capitalistic imperialism, China might still be
a capitalist monarchy today , like Japan, instead of a socialist People's

You last point: - In the general absence of wage labor, how feasible is the
construction of socialism? - is now at the core of the debate in China.  Can
one build socialism without first moving through capitalism.  My personal view
is yes but that view is not support by data.  In China, our struggle is with
those who using this agrument as an excuse to install permanent capitalism.
Just as it is a bankrupt policy to tolerate environmental pollution just to
generate wealth with which to clear up the pollution later, it is an equally
bankrupt policy to tolerate ideological pollution as a process of gradual
enlightenment.  It is not necessary to catch a decease in order to be blessed
with its cure.  Knowledge and the esperience of other societies should be
sufficient to avoid the need to reenact historical dialectics.


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