Michael Pugliese debsian at
Fri Nov 5 08:35:15 MST 1999

In December 1996, against my better judgement, I went up to Amherst,
Massachusetts for a conference sponsored by the journal Rethinking Marxism.
A nurse I knew from Nicaragua solidarity work had told me that she had been
to the last one and didn't understand a word they said. Someone had told me
once that the organizers were Althusserians. That was no incentive to go up
to Massachusetts in the dead of winter, no-sirree Bob.

At the opening night's reception, I downed 3 scotches in rapid succession
to put me in the proper frame of mind for the opening plenary. Vandana
Shiva spoke on how the ecological crisis can be traced to Descarte's
mind-body duality. I can't remember who the other speaker was, but after
Richard Wolff opened up the floor for discussion, I was ready to biff
someone good. I was the first to speak and denounced the conference
organizers as excluding the Sokal point of view and running a bunch of
postmodernist bullshit down our throats. Those were about my exact words.
Wolff wore an expression of shock on his face as if I fired a revolver into
the ceiling.

The next night Judith Butler spoke at the plenary and singled out the
"Sokal affair" as a conservative Marxist backlash against the new social
movements. I didn't attend her talk or any of the remaining plenaries,
because I just wasn't interested. I remained in my hotel room reading a
history of coffee production in Central America.

At the next night's plenary, all hell broke loose. Etienne Balibar, who is
idolized by the editors of Rethinking Marxism, had begun the third hour of
a talk on national oppression that had a 45 minute time limit. The audience
started standing up and shouting at him. Where did he get the nerve to
treat other people in such a disrespectful manner. The protestors seemed to
be mostly Indian female graduate students, who were fans of Meera Nanda.
Meera, who is Indian herself, is a scientist and colleague of Alan Sokal's,
and had written articles recently for New Politics and Monthly Review
lambasting postmodernist science. The irony of women of color protesting a
white expert on the subject of national oppression was lost on few,
especially me.

The conference organizers now were seeing some kind of conspiracy. After my
drunken tirade and this outburst, they were now worried about a full-scale
riot. Can you imagine that? How times had changed. The last riot I could
remember was when Maoists tried to attack Vance Hartke at an antiwar
conference in 1971. Now we ready to trade punches over how to interpret the

At the time, Doug was pro-Sokal but has shifted all the way in the other
direction. His big complaint seems to be that Sokal knew nothing about
Lacan and company, whom he sent up in his famous Social Text spoof.
Meanwhile, my complaint about Alan Sokal has a different character. I don't
care about his knowing nothing about Lacan. That is a feather in his cap,
as far as I'm concerned. It is that he knows next to nothing about Marxism
that bothers me. More about that anon, dear reader.

In the course of digging into all these questions, Doug has seen merit in
the other side, to the point of becoming a great admirer of Judith Butler.
Over on his LBO-Talk mailing list, they are apparently about to begin a
cyberseminar on her work. I suppose my flame war with Rakesh was a
subconscious mechanism to get me thrown out before the blasted thing
started. All that talk about penises, vaginas and deconstructing the self
would have made me uncomfortable, because I am a bit of prude.

Independently of that, I decided it was about time to take a look at what
she was saying myself. Doug, like Sokal, is a very smart guy, so I wanted
to see what Butler was about. If he was so impressed, maybe there was
something I was missing. Her Amherst plenary talk is titled "Marxism and
the Merely Cultural" and is contained in the January/February 1998 New Left
Review. I now want to turn my attention to it and show where it goes wrong.

Butler's article is a defense of the "merely cultural" against conservative
Marxism. Conservative Marxism, you see, analyzes everything from the
standpoint of production but the new social movements often involve
struggles that have nothing to do with production, the gay liberation
movement in particular. Those hidebound Marxists would throw everything
overboard that was not tied to the production of surplus value or the
reproduction of the family.

For some reason, the Sokal hoax gets thrown into the hopper. Why? She writes:

"Thus, the result of parody is paradoxical: the gleeful sense of triumph
indulged by the avatars of an ostensibly more serious Marxism about their
moment in the cultural limelight exemplifies and symptomatizes precisely
the cultural object of critique they oppose; the sense of triumph over this
enemy, which cannot take place without in some eerie way taking the very
place of the enemy, raises the question of whether the aims and goals of
this more serious Marxism have not become hopelessly displaced onto a
cultural domain, producing a transient object of media attention in the
place of a more systematic analysis of economic and social relations. This
sense of triumph reinscribes a factionalization within the Left at the very
moment in which welfare rights are being abolished in this country, class
differentials are intensifying across the globe, and the right wing in this
country has successfully gained the ground of the 'middle' effectively
making the Left itself invisible within the media"

This is just a long-winded way of saying that Sokal has divided the left,
with old-fashioned base/superstructure types on one side and trendy,
post-Marxists on the other. While they poke each other's eyes out, welfare
mothers are getting thrown into the street. Yes, I know--it is a ridiculous
notion. I can't think of anything more incongruous than Judith Butler
marching in a welfare rights demonstration.

Butler frames the fight with left cultural studies in one corner and "more
orthodox forms of Marxism" in the other. The new social movements would
seem to be lined up with the former, while stolid factory workers on the
other. In reality, the new social movements in the United States of the
1970s and 80s got their acts together without any help from left cultural
theorists. By the same token, stolid factory workers have happily ignored
"more orthodox forms of Marxism" in the same period, which extends back to
the beginning of WWII historically.

Butler only gets down to specifics when she deals with the gay liberation
movement. Although she never mentions Sokal by name, she does single out
Nancy Fraser as an example of Marxist conservatism in her "productivist"
approach to gay oppression. According to Butler, Fraser, author of "Justice
Interruptus," has developed a schema where genuine oppression is related to
one's participation in the political economy either as workers or as family
members. The worker produces capital, while the wife helps in the
production of the family, which is essential to the overall production
process. The gays, who just have fun like the grasshoppers, are not part of
the very serious and Marxist production process of the ant workers and
families. So what would be gay people's complaint? Fraser says they suffer
because of "lack of recognition." In other words, they are culturally
deprived because they are forced to the margins of society. This
trivializes their situation, Butler argues. The only solution is to
transcend the mode of production framework of traditional Marxism, because
it can not explain homophobia. Since there is no profit in homophobia, it
can not take on significance in Marxism. Thus Marxism would see no
particular reason to struggle against it.

The only problem with this approach--and it is a huge one--is that Butler
is fighting against economic determinism and not Marxism. Marxism does not
explain every form of oppression as rooted in the political economy. The
capitalist system is not some kind of clockwork contraption, which assigns
a role to every form of injustice based on how it fits into the whole. It
is much more complex and much more IRRATIONAL.

Back in 1967, when I first came around the Trotskyist movement, I asked an
old-timer how he would explain the extermination of the Jews. How could
this make sense from a Marxist perspective, because the Nazis would have
been better off keeping them as slaves than killing them. Slaves produce
value, while corpses do not. His explanation has stayed with me over the
years. He said that Nazism was a system characterized by the
institutionalization of all sorts of irrational beliefs. With a system like
that, it is not so easy to keep self-destructive tendencies under check. It
is like a snowball rolling down a hill that eventually turns into an
avalanche. Hatred of the Jews, which had started as xenophobia, transforms
itself into a full-scale exterminationist policy.

We should keep this in mind when we think about the nuclear arms race. The
hydrogen bomb was developed as a strategic weapon when its actual use would
have resulted in the destruction of the capitalist system. How can we
explain what is perhaps the most defining element of the cold war when it
can not be explained simply in terms of its role in the mode of production.
While some would argue that the nuclear arms race was necessary from a
Keynsian standpoint, it is important to take note of the numerous occasions
when we were at the brink of war. If Kennedy had gone over the brink in a
nuclear war with Krushchev over the Cuban missiles, would the recapture of
sugar plantations on the island have been a sufficient explanation?

The same thing is true with respect to homophobia. Not every prejudice in
capitalist society is rooted in the capitalist mode of production. In fact,
just like our brain contains traces of our pre-hominid past, capitalist
society retains all sorts of precapitalist institutions whose grip
continues to be felt in present-day society. The Catholic Church is the
prime receptacle for these sorts of phobias. More to the point,
revolutionary socialists do not allow such a narrow economic determinism
affect our political decisions. As Lenin explained in "What is to be Done,"
the vanguard party stands up for every oppressed and victimized layer of
society, whether or not they produce surplus value.

Nancy Fraser's reply to Judith Butler in the subsequent NLR covers some of
this same ground, but from a reformist outlook:

"Empirically, however, it is highly implausible that gay and lesbian
struggles threaten capitalism in its actually existing historical form.
That might be the case if homosexuals were constructed as an inferior but
useful class of menial labourers whose exploitation was central to the
workings of the economy, as African Americans, for example, have been. Then
one could say that capital's interests are served by keeping them 'in their
place'. In fact, however homosexuals are more often constructed as a group
whose very existence is an abomination, much like the Nazi construction of
Jews; they should have no 'place' in society at all. No wonder, then, that
the principal opponents of gay and lesbian rights today are not
multinational corporations, but religious and cultural conservatives, whose
obsession is status. not profits. In fact, some multinationals--notably
American Airlines, Apple Computer and Disney--have elicited the wrath of
such conservatives by instituting gay-friendly policies, such as domestic
partnership benefits. They apparently see advantages in accommodating gays."

Thus her program for uniting the gay movement with working class struggles
would seem to be reinforcing the "enlightened" sector of the bourgeoisie.
In essence, the debate between Butler and Fraser is between two
highly-educated reformists. Which leads me to Alan Sokal.

I had never really given much thought to Alan's relationship to Marxism. I,
like most people, just assumed that he had gone through volume one of
Capital, etc., in the way that young orthodox Jews learn to read Hebrew.
Anybody who describes himself as a "socialist" repeatedly in debates with
Andrew Ross et al, clearly MUST have at least familiarity with, if not
commitment to, the Marxist intellectual tradition.

I discovered that this is not true at all. Despite Alan's assertion that he
is a socialist, in reality he is a left liberal. I had lunch with him on
New Year's Eve in order to discuss my concerns about his defense of the
"Kennewick Man" excavations near the Columbia River in Washington State.
Alan had defended the scientists against the American Indian "creationists"
in his debate with Andrew Ross and I hadn't given it too much thought at
the time. Now that I had become thoroughly immersed in such questions, his
position gnawed away at me like a piece of undigested food.

In the course of our discussion, it was revealed to me that Alan's defense
of science has nothing to do with Marxism or socialism. It is virtually
indistinguishable from everyday liberal concepts of the role of scientists
in society. He said that bad science would expose itself in a free society,
so there would seem to be little risk of running into the sort of horrors
that took place in Nazi Germany or Stalin's Russia. All we have to do is
criticize the excesses of archaeologists and everything would come out okay
in the end. I sat there sipping my wine in a mood of total shock. Alan's
trust in capitalist society was touching but a bit naïve. After all, this
was a free country when anthropologists and archaeologists wrote all sorts
of racist nonsense throughout the 19th and early 20th century. Leaving this
aside for the moment, I had a completely different analysis of how science
is conducted. As a stodgy old Marxist, I had become convinced long ago that
the ruling ideas of society are those of the ruling class. Science was not

I asked Alan if he had ever read Richard Lewontin or Richard Levins,
co-authors of "The Dialectical Biologist." No, he had taken the book out of
the library, but never read it. This was astonishing to me. How could Alan
Sokal have become regarded as some kind of defender of Marxist rectitude
when he had utterly no engagement with the main experts in the field. In
his new book "Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of
Science," co-authored by physicist Jean Bricmont, there is no index entry
for Marx, Lewontin or Levins. In the one chapter that deals with their own
views on the science wars, as opposed to the follies of the pomos, they
analyze Thomas Kuhn, not the Marxist analysis of what Lewontin and Levins
call the "Commoditization of Science." That is the real issue, not what
Lacan thinks of pi.

In point of fact, the Social Text issue that Alan's spoof appeared in is
one of their better efforts. It is available now under the title "Science
Wars" and contains first-rate articles by Levins and Lewontin. It turns out
that the original Social Text issue was basically a rejoinder to Norman
Levitt, Alan Sokal's ally in the so-called science wars. Alan told Lingua
Franca that his spoof was inspired by Levitt's efforts to expose irrational
tendencies in the academy.

Directing his attention to Levitt and co-author Paul Gross's "Higher
Superstitions," Lewontin writes:

"What Gross and Levitt have done is to turn their back on, or deny the
existence of, some of the most important questions in the formation of
scientific knowledge. They are scornful of 'metaphor mongers,' yet Gross's
own field of developmental biology is in the iron grip of a metaphor, the
metaphor of 'development' To describe the life history of an organism as
'development' is to prejudice the entire problematic of the investigation
and to guarantee that certain explanations will dominate. 'Development'
means literally an unrolling or an unfolding, seen also in the Spanish
desarollo, or the German Entwicklung (unwinding). It means the making
manifest of an already predetermined pattern immanent in the fertilized
egg, just as the picture is immanent in an exposed film, which is then
'developed.' All that is required is the appropriate triggering of the
process and the provision of a milieu that allows it to unfold. This is not
mere 'metaphor mongering'; it reveals the shape of investigation in the
field. Genes are everything. The environment is irrelevant except insofar
as it allows development. The field then takes as its problematic precisely
those life-history events that are indeed specified in the genome: the
differentiation of the front end from the back end, and why pigs do not
have wings. But it ignores completely the vast field of characters for
which there is a constant interplay between genes and environment, and
which cannot be understood under the rubric of 'development,' Nor are these
characters trivial: they certainly include the central nervous system, for
which the life history of the nerve connections of the roundworm is a very
bad metaphor."

This is the kind of discussion that matters most in the so-called science
wars. Instead of shooting fish in a barrel, Alan Sokal should be responding
to these arguments. Instead, he has constructed strawmen that are easy to
knock down.

This entire affair now stands revealed as something as a comedy of errors.
Alan Sokal surfaces as a defender of classical Marxism, when he actually
has next to zero familiarity with the basic ideas of Marxism. Doug Henwood,
who would seem to have an affinity with postmodernism to begin with,
recoils from Sokal's offensive and throws himself in the arms of Rethinking
Marxism and Judith Butler. Today, Doug is arguing positions that I had
first considered 32 years ago when I first encountered Marxism. Instead of
asking why the Nazis acting against their own material interests when they
exterminated the Jews, he asks, "Why does a horde of cops shoot a sleeping
black woman in her car, like happened in Riverside the other week? Because
of the objective factor, 'racism'? That would assume what you're trying to
explain. You can explain class by the extraction and appropriation of
surplus value - what's the surplus value of racism?"

What is the surplus value of racism indeed. If anything, this entire
discussion has convinced me of the need for Marxists to reassert their
position against all sorts of mystification put forward in its name. This
is an exhausting task, since the well of academic and sectarian obfuscation
seems bottomless. Of course, we have no choice in the matter since Marxism,
in the final analysis, is the only analytical tool that can save the human
race from capitalist war, economic ruin and ecological despoliation.

Louis Proyect

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