Julio Fernández Baraibar julfb at
Thu Sep 30 14:43:33 MDT 1999

Thank you very mauch, Charles and Beverly for the translation.
Here I send some precisions.

> This is my sister's English translation of Julio's reply to my post
> from a few days ago.
> CB
> ((((((((((((((
> >>> Julio Fernández Baraibar <julfb at> 09/28/99 06:21PM >>>
> Excuse me, but I need to say this in spanish.
> Charles Brown wrote:
> > Perhaps because Spain and Portugal did not institute the other necessary
> condition for initiating full capitalism: wage-labor, removing masses of
> Spanish and Portuguese peasants from the land, their means of production,
> making them free labor with only their labor power to sell as a commodity.
> Interesting that capitalism started in Holland, a Spanish colony, before
> England even.
> Julio:
> I m not sure. A los Reyes Católicos, que en 1492 realizan la unidad
> de España, desalojando a los moros de Granada -hecho este que Goytisolo y
> lamentamos profundamente (me hubiera gustado una Al Andalus en el extremo
> occidental de Europa), y en mi caso mucho más, despues de haber visitado
> Alhambra y el Generalife y compararlo con la caja de zapatos que el
> teuton construyo en la entrada del primer palacio- los sucede el ya
> ((((((((((
> Beverly Brown-Ruggia's translation
> I am not sure.  Ferdinand  and Isabel ( nicknamed the Catholic monarchy)
> achieved unification of Spain  when they dislodged the Moor hold on
> in 1492, a fact that  Goytisolo and I profoundly regret, (I would have
> preferred to have an Al Andalus in the far west of Europe). I  especially
> feel this way after visiting the Alhambra and Genaralife palaces in
> and comparing them to the shoe box, that the Teutonic barbarian  Charles 5
> of Habsburg  constructed at the entrance of the moor palaces. In the
> of the Reformation  the Spanish monarchs, who did not speak Spanish,
> excited by the possibility of reconstructing the old empire of Europe and
> they saw in Spain, without rebel monks, as the base for their Christian.
> Kingdom.

Not the Spanish monarchs, but the german Charles 5 in Germany and 1 in
Spanish. Ferdinand and Isabel, above all Ferdinand, were relatively
progressive, compared with their successors. Ferdinand was king of Aragon,
it means the part of Spain where Barcelona is, and the city by then was one
of the capitalist pole of the peninsula. The disloging of the Moor and jews
of Spain, as a result of the Reconquista, signified a hard slam against the
capitalist development.
> He went on to say that Carlos I, grandson to Ferdinand and Maximiliano,
> bacame (mid 16th century) teh leader of the feudal reaction against the
> secular religious process that imposed the nacent European capitalism.
> the help of the bankers Fuggers (great book of letters from members of
> family is great read and very telling: This is beverly's comment, not
> Julio's), and Welser, Carlos was able to use the products from the sacking
> of the Indies to stop the arches of the Dutch comercial bourgeoisie, in
> process generating one of the highest periods of inflation known to the
> ecomonmy. Instead of creating the structure for, and organizing a national
> state that would allow the free circulation of markest within a determined
> territorial and linguistic location, the division of labor between rural
> urban , personal dispair and the generation of free manual labor, the
> imbecile king, believing that he was Carlo Magno, preffered to create a
> multinational empire "where the sun never sets", as the reactionary
> hsipanasists say.  With the discovery of America by the Spaniards far from
> serving to consolidate capitalism in their country, it postponed this
> until practically this century.
> The reactionary Spanish aristocracy found the emperors policies and
> ideal. With their religious aversion to useful and practical work, this
> parasitical caste impeded the development of Spanish capitalism until the
> 20th century. .....
> Beverly: Now I am summarizing because he goes on at length:
> 1.) the aristocracy set back the agricultural developments brought by the
> Moors. The held vast amounts of land which they used for grazing, and
> peasants were not permitted to use for farming nor were they hired for
> labor.
> 2.)The Hapsburgs prohibted the manufacturing of textiles. Instead they
> expoted wool for processing in Ntherlands.  they then imported finished
> textile products.
> 3.)Julio compares the Spanish aristocracy to the Latinamerican oligarquies
> intoxicated by the free trade and now by the neolibralism.
> 4.)The Sapnish people resisted the iron hand of Carlos 5 as much as they
> could but: He decapitated the leaders of the Revolution of the Commoners
> 1520, and the Golden Century ( 16th c. was the glorious time of gold from
> the Americas), the culture was high and the Spaniards were set to leave
> capitalism alone for nearly 4 centuries.

The Golden Century is called so not by the gold from Americas but the
quantity and quality of writes, poets and theater writer that appeared in
Spain in the XVI century. Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca, Quevedo, Tirso
de Molina are the most famous names. A kind of elizabethan period in spanish

> 5.) the reasons were more political than economic.

I thank you again. It is nice to see the own word in another language.

Julio F.B.

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