Church doctrines and Cuban revolution have many things incommon

Les Schaffer schaffer at
Mon Dec 25 08:22:16 MST 2000

[ Liu, Part II ]

The Discovery of America was partially motivated by Christian
evangelism as much as by the search for a new trade route. Vasco da
Gama, having rounded Africa in 1498, found himself in the midst of the
world of Arabic commerce when he landed on the Malabar Coast in India.
He returned four years later with a fighting fleet of 21 vessels to
dislodge the Arab merchants.  The Portuguese, being devout Christians,
were able to employ un-Christian atrocities against these "infidel"
competitors with immunity from the Church.  The Church blessed
barbaric colonialism in the name of spreading God's word.  Columbus
did the same in America.  The attempts of the progressive colonial
Churchmen after the initial slaughter to protect the converted native
Christians against further sub-human abuse led to the importation of
slaves from Africa.

The Russian Orthodox Church, after the Turkish conquest of
Constantinople, stopped its homage to the Patriarch of Constantinople
who had become a tolerated inferior to the Moslem sultan-caliph, and
ended up as a merely department of the Tsardom.  The Church was ruled
by a Procurator of the Holy Synod under Peter the Great and became an
instrument of the state.

The Counter-Reformation was militant.  It's star, St Ignatius Loyola
was a Christian soldier who founded the Jesuits, an activist order.
While demanding blind and absolute submission to the infallibility of
the Holy Church, the Jesuits favoured rationality and libertarian
trends in religious life.  Their strategy was focused on three fronts:
education of the young to mode the minds of the next generation,
service to the ruling class through being confessors to kings and
community leaders, thus getting deeply involved in secular politics,
and finally production of propaganda for the Holy Church, through the
building of Baroque Churches and commission of propaganda art.  The
Jesuits acted as an international missionary force as well as a
subversive political force for infidel and heretic governments.
English Jesuits trained in the continent returned to Elizabethan
England to overthrow the wayward monarch.  Jesuits invades all regions
when religious issues still swayed in the balance, in France, Germany,
Bohemia, Poland and Hungary.  It was the CIA, Heritage Foundation, the
AEI and Hoover Institute rolled into one. The Inquisition, whose
techniques were copied by Congressional hearings on Communism, under
cover of the rule of law from Roman concepts, originally employed as a
way to ferret out Jewish and Moslem survivors in Spain, was revived to
turn on Protestant subversion.  Religious freedom then took refuge
under the protection of political sovereignty by reviving state
religions in separate nations. The doctrine of separation of Church
and State became the victim of the Inquisition.  The Wars of Religion
were to wipe out Protestantism from the face of Europe.  It failed
because Protestantism found a new ally: the industrial capitalist

The commercial revolution replaced agricultural feudalism with
industrial capitalism.  It was at this time that the term entrepreneur
came into existence, who started out a merchants and ended up as
bankers.  The Italian Medici and the German Fuggers lent money to
popes and kings for their wars an grandeur.  Charles V spent money
borrowed from bankers to get himself elected Holy Roman Emperor.  The
Hapsburgs of both Germany and Spain depended on bankers for their
state finances.  The Fuggers financed Portuguese trade with Asia and
its colonization.  Medieval Christianity had forbidden the taking of
interest as usury and had reservation on the concept of private
property.  Protestantism allowed interest as moral return on capital
which was viewed as God reward for the hardworking and the thrifty.
As lending gradually became the instrument of economic exploitation
rather than sustaining the needs of the political elite, opposition
from the political elite to interest waned, as lending proved to be an
effective way to expand the tax base of the economy.  The discovery of
gold in the Spanish colonies made Spain financially powerful and
enabled it to finance its political/religious objectives in Europe
with the blessing of the Church.  The economic expansion of Europe was
in large measured dependent on persistent inflation.

Charles V, having tried for three decades to preserve religious unity
in Germany, abdicated his many crowns and retired to a monastery in
1556, the year of the Peace of Augsburg which marked the victory of
Protestantism and the political dis-integration of Germany.  Germany
was divided into a Protestant North and a Catholic South until
Bismarck re-united it on January 18, 1871 by proclaiming the Germany
Empire on the strength of the Prussian army.

Protestant England, in the techno-geography of the time of the
religious wars, benefited from the separation by the British Channel
the way the US benefited from the Atlantic Ocean in the 20th century.
It allowed England to fight all its war on foreign soil.  The 17th
century marked the rise of Britain as a world power mostly because of
this fact.  The successful handling of religious discontent by the
British Crown served also to relieve economic pressure that provided
the justification for a policy of colonization. Twenty thousand
Puritans settled in New England from 1630 to 1942 and about the same
number went to the West india Islands. A third emigration wave of
similar size of Scottish Presbyterians went to northern
Ireland. English Catholics settled in Maryland under crown policy.
Anglicans went to Virginia.  Except in Ireland, these religious
emigrations were organized as commercial enterprises in alliance with
religious orders, thus providing a fusion of mercantilism and
religious evangelism.  Puritans were uncomfortable with the doctrine
of the Church of England which had the sovereign as its spiritual
head.  While the king controlled the Church and had the solid support
of the Anglican hierarchy, parliament became successful by focusing on
the power of the purse, since its members were land owners. In 1629,
Charles I and Parliament deadlocked.  The King attempted to rule
without Parliament which could only convene by the King's summon.  Had
he succeeded , the history of England would parallel that of France.
The King's attempt to modernize the navy by having peacetime ship
money paid by the nation as a whole in the form of taxes on land,
which contradicted traditional practice of ship money being provided
by the coast town.  This was the first domestic dispute on the policy
of imperialism.  The inland landlords lost the fight but gained
popular sympathy.  The Catholic Scots rebelled against Anglicanism,
exploiting religion as a moral compass for political independence.
Charles I in 1840 convened Protestant Parliament to raised funds to
suppress the Catholic Scottish rebellion.  A hostile Parliament was
dissolved by the King but subsequent election returned the same
members, among whom was Oliver Cromwell, and sat from 1640 to 1660,
known historically as the Long Parliament.  Far from assisting the
King, the Protestant Parliament used the Catholic Scottish rebellion
to pressure the King to make concessions towards its own political
demands. The Calvinist extremists drove through a bill for the
abolition of bishops to revolutionize the Anglican Church.  By 1642,
King and Parliament came to open war, with Parliament supported by
commercial interests, adopted as a price for supporting from the
Scottish army, the Solemn League and Covenant, describing religion in
England, Scotland and Ireland needing to be made uniform "according to
the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches."
International Calvinism, i.e. Presbyterianism, became the established
legal religion of the three kingdoms.  Under the leadership of
Cromwell, a devout Puritan, the Ironsides, a new army with a will to
fight drawing morale and discipline from extreme Protestant
exaltation.  Its members were from the lower economic classes than was
represented in Parliament, and they turned against the King,
Parliament and the reformed Church alike.  They favoured small cells
subservient to no central supervision, organized along democratic and
socialist ideals.  Cromwell concluded that the King was a symbol for
the counter-revolution which he called "ungodly persons" in the
religious context.  The Long Parliament of more than 500 members was
purged by Colonel Pride down to a Rump Parliament of 50 which promptly
put the King to death.  The British Isles were declared a republic,
named the Commonwealth, from which the American Puritan named the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Calvinist fury swept through Ireland
and thousands of Catholics were massacred, absentee Protestant
landlords installed, turning all surviving Catholics into tenants.  To
sustain his rule, Cromwell turned to foreign conquest through the
Navigation Act of 1951 with attacks on Dutch maritime supremacy and
war with Spain through which the British acquired Jamaica.
Domestically, Cromwell was pushed by the Levellers who wanted a
levelling between rich and poor, the Digger who dug on common land and
Fifth Monarchist who believed in the coming monarchy reigned by the
return of Christ, as prophesied in the Book of Revelations.  To
contain such socialist trends, Cromwell resorted to military
dictatorship.  Two years after Cromwell's death in 1658, Charles II,
along with the Church of England, was restored by popular demand.  The
Cromwell republic forever turned Britain away from political
radicalism and turned off political consciousness for the lower
classes for the next two centuries.  Religion continued to be a major
factor both in British domestic politics and Anglo-French rivalry.

To prevent the repeat of an army loyal to the Parliament, the idea
that law and force within a country should be the monopoly of the
lawful king was proposed by Bishop Bousuet of Paris for the benefit of
Louis XIV.  It became the essence of 17th century absolutism. Bousset
borrowed the idea that all power came from God, thus all who held
power were responsible to God for the way they used it.  Royal power
was absolute but not arbitrary.  It was absolute in the sense that it
was not subject to the interference of Parliament or Estates, or any
other subordinate institution.  Law was the will of the sovereign ao
long as it confirm a higher law which is the will of God.  The Divine
rights of kings is based on their obligation to served God.  This
doctrine altered the business of armed forces as a business enterprise
as in the Renaissance or as an instrument of political power for any
political institution like Cromwell's Romp Parliament.  Under the
doctrine of Absolutism, armed forces are the sole properties of the
King for the purpose of enforcing God's will.  It is to meet the need
to financially support the King's army that Colbert changed the
self-sufficiency of protective mercantilism instituted first by
Richelieu to a mercantilist policy of imperialism. Colbert promulgated
the Commercial Code, the forerunning of WTO, replacing local
commercial laws and tariffs, deregulated business, improved
communications by building roads and canals, turned guilds into
production of high standard and market responsive, gave subsidies, tax
exemptions, and monopolistic privileges to the manufacturing of French
silk, tapestries, glassware and silverware and woollens.  He put the
government into the business of founding colonies, built a navy to
protect in trading interests and established the French East India
Trading Company.  The Gallic Church was a integral partner in this
state enterprise.

The French revolution was as much anti-clerical as it was anti
monarchy.  The Constituent Assembly confiscated Church property,
despite the early support of village priests for the Third Estate.
The Civil Constitution established a French National Church, rejecting
the authority of Rome.  It had been called the greatest tactical
plunder of the Revolution as it inadverdently strengthened the appeal
of the Vatican.  It required Napoleon, in healing the scheme of two
French churches, to acknowledge powers in the papacy that had never
been acknowledged by the French kings.

The anti-clerical French Revolutionary Calendar, adopted on October 3,
1793 by the radical, populist Hebertists in their de-Christianization
movement would designate September 22, 1792, the founding date of the
Republic, as Vendemiaire 1, Year I of the Republic of France.

The French Revolutionary Calendar would change the names of the months
to remove all reminders of despotic traditions, such as August, named
after Roman Emperor Augustus; July, named after Julius Caesar and
March (Mars in French), named after the Roman God of War.  It would
make all months 30 days equally to emphasize equality and rationality.

The new names for the months in the new calendar would be invented
hastily, by revolutionary dramatist Philippe Fabre d'Eglantine
(1755-1794), Danton's talented secretary who would be tragically
guillotined in the prime age of 39, a mere 5 years after the storming
of the Bastille, the popular uprising which would launch the French
Revolution.  The remaining 5 days of the year, called sans-culottides,
after the name given to the members of the lower classes not wearing
fancy culottes (breeches), would be feast days for the labouring
class, called: Virtue, Genius, Labour, Reason and Rewards.

The French Revolutionary Calendar would reject the year of the birth
of Christ as the 1st year of anno Domini (year of our Lord).  It would
replace the 7-day week, viewed by revolutionary zealots as an obsolete
Christian relic, with the metric 10-day decade, unwittingly causing a
counterrevolutionary, regressive reduction in the number of days of
rest for the working populace from 4.25 to 3 in a month.  The overall
purpose would be to remove from the cultural consciousness all
Christian events such as Christmas, Easter, All Saints Day, the
Sabbath, etc., as part of a program to replace Christianity with a
Cult of Reason.  The French Revolutionary Calendar would remain in
effect until the Thermidorian Reaction, a period of political
revisionism, of vulgar extravagance in social manners, of greed and
scandal and of merveilleuses: women known for their underdressed
overdressing in public.  The Thermidorian Reaction would be marked
with growth of corruption, inflationary speculation and manipulative
profiteering, suspension of populist economic regulations, topped with
a wholesale repeal of de-Christianization practices.

The Thermidorian Reaction is so named because it would come after the
coup d'etat of 9 Thermidor, Year III of the Republic (July 27, 1794)
which would bring down Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794), thus ending
the reign of Terror, and bring to power a convenient coalition of the
conservative old bourgeoisie and the boisterous parvenus and nouveaux
riches, which would deliver the nation, another 5 years later, to a
military dictator in the person of Napoleon.

The role the Christian churches played in the advent of Western imperialism is
well documented. Christianity was administered as the opium for the oppressed
natives. Missionary outpost were the scouting agents for imperialistic designs.
Missionaries served as political advisors to colonial offices and trading houses.
All during modern world history, foreign missionaries arrogantly penetrate
countries to spread their submissive doctrines and carry out their political
agendas. For centuries, throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America, missionaries
have worked as conscious agents for colonial and imperialist empires: They train
home-grown networks of cadre for their masters. They spy for authorities.  The
Catholic hierarchy as a whole has been extremely hostile to the armed
revolutionary movement. This includes both its conservative fascist factions and
its more social democratic "Liberation Theology" factions.

Pius XI was the Pope who made the infamous compact with Mussolini,
constructed an alliance of great cordiality with militarist Japan, and
helped Hitler to power by ordering the German Church to drop its
hostility to Nazi adventurers. He was the Pope who made Eugenio
Pacelli his Secretary of State and signed every agreement that Pacelli
negotiated between 1930 and 1939. It was he who blessed the outrages
of the Germans and Italians in Spain and sent a Papal banner to float
beside the blood-stained rag of Franco; he who sat with sealed lips in
the Vatican while the whole Italian Church cheered the savage attack
on Abyssinia and called it a crusade for God and civilization: he who
patted Cardinal Innitzer on the back for betraying Austria to Hitler
and who approved the Catholic intrigues which ruined Czecho-Slovakia:
he who roused the Catholic world -- indeed the whole world as far as
he could reach -- to hatred of the USSR and a demand for the
extinction of Socialism.

Henry C.K. Liu

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