FW: marxism-digest V1 #2328

David Caicedo redsun1967 at SPAMnetzero.net
Sat Jun 24 12:36:01 MDT 2000




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Subject:        marxism-digest V1 #2328


marxism-digest        Saturday, June 24 2000        Volume 01 : Number 2328



In this issue:
==============

   Marxist Analysis of the Gary Graham Lynching
   How to post to the Marxism list
   Forwarded from Michael Gavin (posted from unsubbed address)
   The Last Meal (for Shaka Sankofa)
   The Wisdom of the Wizard...
   RE: Forwarded from Anthony (on Celtic invasion)
   Re: Query: Who put so many of us on that f*ing list?
   US 'supported anti-left terror in Italy'
   (Fwd) Re: [listageografia] Protecionismo e minha lojinha

----------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 07:51:05 -0400
From: "Jay Moore" <research at neravt.com>
Subject: Marxist Analysis of the Gary Graham Lynching

After the execution of Gary Graham: the world looks at America and America
looks at itself

By David Walsh
24 June 2000

The June 22 execution of Gary Graham, sanctioned by Texas Governor and
Republican presidential candidate-to-be George W. Bush, has cast a
penetrating light on American society and helped lay bare its
contradictions. Although hardly the first state murder carried out in the
US, there was something particularly shocking and horrifying about the
event. This quality was clearly felt around the world.

Graham was put to death Thursday night, but the entire society was on trial.
His final statements amounted to an enduring curse against the existing
social order. One has the sense that this desperate voice from the death
chamber gurney will haunt those who organized and carried out the execution
for years to come.

By any standards of civilized society Graham's death was a barbaric act.
Everything about the case-Graham's social background and his age (seventeen)
at the time of his arrest, the lack of physical evidence linking him to the
crime, his identification by only one witness, his criminally incompetent
legal counsel and travesty of a trial, his nearly two decades on death
row-reeks of injustice and state-organized brutality.

Great numbers of people in the United States and around the world have
reacted to the execution with horror.
There is a widespread feeling that something terrible has happened. This
perception is healthy and humane, but it can only lead to a change in the
situation if difficult political questions are confronted: Why does American
society carry out crimes like this? How is this barbarism to be explained,
and combated?

There are currently some two million people in prison and more than 3,500
people on death row in the US. The state of Texas has executed 23 people in
2000 alone; Bush has presided over the execution of 134 individuals in his
five years in office. No other countries in the economically advanced
regions of the globe have comparable figures; for the most part, they don't
have figures on executions at all-capital punishment is banned in Western
Europe.

A society that resorts to incarcerating and executing its citizens in such
numbers thereby admits that it is incapable of solving its social problems.
Why, in the final analysis, do the vast majority find themselves on death
row? Because they are poor and semi-literate, or victims of one kind of
abuse or another, or mentally ill, or all of these. Because, in short,
society has given them little or no chance in life. The American ruling
elite and its two political parties have no answers for the poverty and
misery in which millions are forced to live.

The existence of these conditions provides the key to understanding what
seems on the surface a great paradox-that the grim cavalcade of punishment
and death has coincided with what is officially described as the most
prolonged economic expansion in US history. Analysis reveals that the stock
market and profit boom have benefited a relatively small portion of the
population, primarily the top 10 percent.

The creation of a "flexible," low-wage economy, in which workers are
constantly prey to insecurity, has not improved the conditions of the vast
majority. On the contrary, absolute poverty has tightened its grip on the
most oppressed and tens of millions more struggle to make ends meet.

The executives of major corporations in the US make more than 400 times the
pay of an average worker. Such a level of social inequality can never be
voluntarily or democratically accepted by the population, even in the
absence of conscious political opposition. It must be policed. One of the
inevitable consequences of the social chasm between the rich and everyone
else is the meting out of severe punishment to those unlucky enough to be on
the wrong side of the law.

Official violence is hardly a new or incidental feature of American life.
This is the land, after all, of the police truncheon, the "third degree,"
the strikebreaker, the vigilante, the political witch-hunt and the judicial
frame-up.
One only has to mention a few names to evoke this legacy of cruelty and
repression: the Molly Maguires, Joe Hill, Sacco and Vanzetti, the
Rosenbergs. A variety of historical and ideological factors can be cited to
explain the particular brutality of the American ruling elite-its origins in
the extermination of the native population, its shortsighted and pragmatic
"frontier" mentality, the absence of social-democratic "buffers," and so
forth.

In the end, however, the present violence of the system can only be
explained by the present state of American society. The US is the most
powerful capitalist economy on earth. Yet behind the veneer of prosperity
and beneath increasingly threadbare democratic forms, it harbors the
fiercest and most bitter class conflict. This exists objectively. That the
working population is largely unconscious of this conflict, or at least of
its implications, does nothing to lessen it.

The denouement of the Gary Graham case, as it unfolded Thursday night,
sharply exposed this social conflict. More than that, Graham's last hours
became a significant episode within the struggle of opposed classes. Graham
did not go quietly to his death. He resisted, refusing even to eat his "last
meal" on a table provided by his killers. He went to his death proclaiming
his innocence and denouncing his murderers.

Who is Gary Graham? In 1981 he was a thief and a thug, responsible for a
series of armed robberies and a rape. His poverty-stricken background
prepared him for that, as similar backgrounds have prepared thousands of
others. But his years in prison changed him, radicalized him.

Graham left this world with a certain nobility. People like him are victims
of the social meat grinder. There is no society on earth that wastes human
potential more than America. Graham committed violent crimes, but how can
that be weighed against the 19 years of torment, waiting to be slaughtered,
inflicted in a premeditated fashion by official society? What can be said in
defense of a system that mobilizes a "Cell Extraction Team" to drag a man
from his cell, straps him to a table and injects carefully-prepared poisons
into his bloodstream? The Graham killing exposed the gruesomeness of what
goes on every week in the US, in one state or another. The entire society,
with its pretenses to democracy, pays a heavy price for this sort of crime.

The response by the political and media establishment has been nervous and
defensive, from the ashen-faced reporters who witnessed the execution to a
frightened-looking Bush. They don't know what to make of the event and the
widespread revulsion.

These are people who believe their own press clippings. Mesmerized by their
stock portfolios, they truly believe that opposition to their policies,
including radical opposition, is a thing of the past.

They were taken aback by Thursday's events, which did not go at all as
planned. An event intended to further brutalize the population largely
turned into its opposite: the starting-point for sensitizing masses of
people and waking them from their political and even moral torpor.

The Graham execution and its reverberations will have a radicalizing effect
on the American people. Already the presence of hundreds of demonstrators
outside the Huntsville facility-as well as rallies in Austin, Texas; San
Francisco and Northampton, Massachusetts-points to a growth of social
protest. This will increase.

This state murder will help clarify the real state of affairs in America.
Young people in particular will be increasingly horrified by a society that
glorifies billionaires and puts the poor and oppressed to death by half a
dozen equally cruel methods. The campaign to defend Mumia Abu-Jamal, another
intended victim of state murder, will gain new strength from the popular
response to the Graham case.

The assembly line of executions will deepen the hostility felt for both
political parties, united in their support for the death penalty. Vice
President Al Gore and California's Democratic right-wing governor Gray
Davis, for example, took the opportunity of Graham's death to restate their
belief in capital punishment.

Periods of social radicalization have often announced themselves in the US
by the growth of opposition to frame-ups and capital punishment. This is
historically bound up with the growth of labor militancy in the early part
of the twentieth century. In the late 1950s the case of Caryl Chessman,
finally executed in 1960 after 12 years on death row, became a focal point
of social protest and heralded the radicalism of the following decade.
Conversely, the growth in support for the death penalty in the mid- and late
1970s indicated a right-wing turn by sections of the middle class and
working class.

For much of the world's population Graham's death will only heighten the
belief that the US represents a threat to democratic rights and perhaps to
human life in general. The general reaction in the European press has been
shock and dismay. The US is seen as a bully, or worse. The credibility of
American democracy, with its claims to represent a model for every country
on earth, is increasingly a mockery. More and more, the US is seen as a
pariah state.

There are signs of growing unease in the political establishment about the
consequences of the death penalty policy. There are those who worry that the
official bloodlust will alienate the population and undermine faith in the
system as a whole. The narrowness of the Supreme Court vote to reject
Graham's appeal, a 5-4 margin, has to be seen in this light.

In the end, the decisive issue is what large numbers of workers, students
and intellectuals make of Graham's execution. There will be those who
consider it terrible, but an aberration. Others will shake their heads,
hoping such a thing will never happen again-although they know better. Some
will try to ignore it and go about their business. But this execution is not
an accident. It is deeply rooted in the social relations and political
structures of American capitalism.

The death penalty will not be overcome by appeals to established
institutions or to the Democratic or Republican parties, nor can it be
overcome if it is addressed as an issue apart from all others. It must be
fought on a new basis, as part of the development in the working class of an
independent political movement based on a truly democratic, and therefore
socialist, program.

World Socialist Web Site
http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/jun2000/grah-j24_prn.shtml

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 08:37:49 -0400
From: Louis Proyect <lnp3 at panix.com>
Subject: How to post to the Marxism list

In the course of an exchange offline with a list member yesterday,  it came
to my attention that he and possibly others are not sure about how to post
to the list.

If you are subbed to the regular list, and there is a message you want to
reply to, simply use the "Reply" function on your email program. This will
automatically include all of the previous message that you are commenting
on with a ">" character in front of each line. It will also automatically
make the list address (marxism at lists.panix.com) the "to" address. (Please
try to weed out as much of the previous message as possible and only
include the text that is relevant to your reply. Bandwidth is at a premium
for subscribers in third world countries where phone charges are much higher.)

If you are subbed to the digest, it is a little bit trickier because you
are dealing with multiple messages. Probably the best approach would be to
copy and paste from the digest into a new message only what you are
commenting on and then send it off to marxism at lists.panix.com.

Of course if you are composing a new message that is not related to a
previous thread, just compose it and send it off to marxism at lists.panix.com
as if you were writing a friend. Well, the list is kind of a friend to most
of us, when you stop and think about it. . .

Louis Proyect
Marxism mailing list: http://www.marxmail.org/

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 09:09:40 -0400
From: Louis Proyect <lnp3 at panix.com>
Subject: Forwarded from Michael Gavin (posted from unsubbed address)

Paul Flewers wtote:

> List members who have not been to Britain for a bit may not know of
> the 'Irish Pub' phenomenon. Over the last five or so years, many
> ordinary pubs in London and other British cities have been refurbished
> as 'Irish Pubs', painted garish colours, covered in junk and old
> bottles with Irish labels, stocked with foul brews and generally
> messed up. Friends and colleagues of mine from Ireland say they're
> nothing like Irish pubs, which (they told me) are either like ordinary
> British pubs, or bars at the back of shops (British 'Irish Pubs' are
> pubs trying to look like shops trying to look like pubs), and they
> hate them with an intensity that has to be seen to be believed. I
> don't know who started this horrible fashion, but whoever was
> responsible for them should not be allowed to go unpunished.

The "Irish" pub phenomenon is not exclusively British. While in Dublin a
few weeks ago I noticed that one of the more disturbing aspects of the
"Celtic Tiger" phenomenon is the attempt of so many Dublin pubs in the
pricier more touristy areas of the city to transform themselves into the
sort of parody of Irishness that seems to have spread across the globe
like a plague.

Here in Germany we also have an "Irish pub" phenomenon (there's also a
related "English pub" phenomenon), although it's usually not connected
with transforming old pubs into a travesty of themselves. Some of them
are run by Irishmen (sometimes, although rarely, even by Irishwomen) and
function as a sort of informal community centre for Irish immigrants.
Many of them are however run by Germans and fit with some German fantasy
of what an Irish pub should be like but never ever was. The phenomenon
is supported financially by brewers of Irish beer and stout. The most
important of these are Guinness (which is, of course, now a British-
based multi-national) and Murphy's (a brewery based in Cork). It's part
of a multi-national marketing strategy.

I understand that the phenomenon isn't restricted to Germany but
international. I know that all over Eastern Europe and in the Far East
Irish pubs are being promoted with the support of the Irish government.
There has been an Irish pub in Moscow for a number of years - it was
opened by the Irish ambassador - and a couple of months ago an Irish pub
was openend in Beijing - also opened by the Irish ambassador.

The phenomenon reflects a marketing strategy by breweries with Irish
connections and links in with the growing confidence of the Irish
bourgeoisie due to the transformation and relative success of the Irish
economy since the beginning of the 1990s - the fastest growing economy
in the EU. The whole "Riverdance" bonanza (an internationalised version
of traditional Irish culture) is part and parcel of this development.
Even the traditional poverty of Ireland (due to it's status as an
agricultural colony of Britain) is now being commercialised, as can be
seen by the development of the former slums of Limerick as a sort of

Angela's Ashes" theme park - not that Frank McCourt, who wrote this
scathing memoir of his poverty-stricken Irish childhood in the 1930s,
is to blame for this phenomenon


Louis Proyect
Marxism mailing list: http://www.marxmail.org/

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 09:04:51 -0500
From: Steve Sharra <ssharra at blue.weeg.uiowa.edu>
Subject: The Last Meal (for Shaka Sankofa)

THE LAST MEAL
(for Shaka Sankofa, June 22, 2000)

I offered you the last meal
to eat in the solitude of your rage
promising to go fighting to the execution chamber
the full glare of the world media
emboldening you to the likeness of the Messiah
from whom we learn about the symbolism
of last meals

You refused the last meal
and went hungry for those remaining hours
in which the souls of the lynched dead
in whose streaming blood we wash our hands
returned to haunt the land

But you refused the last meal
& thus mocked the gesture of our Savior
who commanded us an eye for an eye
as he told the men rebuking Mary Magdalene
that the poor, & slaves, would always be with us
to disturb our peaceful streets

You refused the last meal
to spite the smuck on my face
from a surfeit of ambrosial meals
while you and your Lazarus folk
pick morsels from under my table
inside the governor's mansion
enroute to the Oval Office

You keep refusing more meals
from the glistening chinaware of my heritage
built on the sweat of your labor
from where we build civilization
trumpeted from heights that set your sun
and chickens come home to roost
for more slaughter
so I can offer your folk more last meals.
- -----

Steve Sharra, June 22, 2000

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 00:41:00 -0300
From: "Nestor Miguel Gorojovsky" <gorojovsky at inea.com.ar>
Subject: The Wisdom of the Wizard...

List,
A funny piece of political terathology.
Since 1860, no politician in Argentina who has been a Governor of
Buenos Aires has been able to become President of the Nation. This
may probably be due to the fact that the Governor of Buenos Aires
accumulates so much power that the whole structure of Argentinian
politics will almost automatically move against his / her becoming
President.
During the last elections, the rival of Fernando de la Rúa, Eduardo
Duhalde, was the Governor of Buenos Aires. Duhalde had been the Vice
President of Carlos Menem in 1989, and in a cunning political move
Menem forced him to run for the Province of Buenos Aires a couple of
years later, which he did and won.
When, in 1999, we had the elections for President, Duhalde had to
face the "curse" of the Governors of Buenos Aires. Among the many
actions that were taken in order to ensure that he would win the
Presidentials, a self-appointed "psychic" (that is a clever minor
rogue) organized an Occultist Exorcism at the main square of La Plata
City (the capital city of Buenos Aires Province).
He was known as Duhalde's Wizard even since. As it is always the case
with these wizards, the fact that Duhalde lost the elections did not
diminish his professional pride, nor harm his reputation as a
"psychic".
These people are, in fact, intelligent guys who trade with the
credulity and fears of others. They are very keen in their perception
of the bearing that events are taking. So that it will be a very
instructive thing to see that the Wizard is now explaining that De la
Rúa has been object of a foul sorcery act, and that he will not be
able to be a good President.
Rats run away from the sinking ship. Wizards always see farther.
The press release on this guy's declarations follows (in Spanish):
BRUJO DE DUHALDE INSINUA QUE A DE LA RUA LE HICIERON UN TRABAJO
ESPIRITUAL PARA QUE FRACASE
LA PLATA, Junio 23 (Agencia NOVA) El "brujo de Duhalde", Manuel
Salazar, quien  un año atrás realizó un ritual en La Plata para
romper el maleficio que no permitía que un gobernador bonaerense sea
presidente, volvió a las andadas y ahora criticó la gestión de
Fernando de la Rúa, al sostener que "tiene un bloqueo psíquico y
espiritual, que demuestra un severo estado, donde el pueblo argentino
será el principal perjudicado".
      El autodenominado psíquico mentalista fue muy duro con quien
venció a Eduardo Duhalde en las elecciones presidenciales a pesar de
su famoso ritual en Plaza Moreno. En un severo diagnóstico dijo que
"De la Rúa no puede llevar bien su gestión porque sufre un bloqueo
psíquico y espiritual, invadido por la ciencia del ocultismo, que
necesariamente obstruye su gestión, con los resultados que ya se
estamos viendo".
     En diálogo con la agencia NOVA, el "brujo de Duhalde", fue más
allá en sus críticas al sostener  que "en este estado, nuestro
presidente de ninguna manera puede llegar  terminar su mandato,
porque esa energía negativa obstruye el pensamiento y desorganiza a
la persona".
     Por último, Salazar consultado sobre el futuro de De la Rúa, el
mentalista aseguró que "debe cambiar para llegar a una estabilidad
psíquica, y eso se logra con la familia y el tiempo, pero mientras
tanto 
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////////////////////



Néstor Miguel Gorojovsky
gorojovsky at inea.com.ar

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 00:25:18 -0300
From: "Nestor Miguel Gorojovsky" <gorojovsky at inea.com.ar>
Subject: RE: Forwarded from Anthony (on Celtic invasion)

En relación a RE: Forwarded from Anthony (on Celtic invasion),
el 23 Jun 00, a las 21:08, Julio Fernández Baraibar dijo:

>
> Unfortunately things are not so easy in my country. The land received
> a very important quantity of inmigrants from Wales, who stayed in the
> north region of Patagonia, in Chubut province.

This group came to Argentina (or, better, to Patagonia) in the 1860s.
In those times, Patagonia was no (white-Christian) man's land (res
nullius), and Argentinian sovereignty there was nominal. The migrants
had the idea that Argentina was a loose array of peoples and that
they would easily become an independent New Wales which would more
easily obtain British protection. Things turned out differently.
Their first settlement took place in some seashore caves near what
today is the town of Madryn, quite known now as a touristic center
because of whale sightseeing excursions.  The first years were a
complete disaster, since the settlers had no idea of how to cope with
an environment outrageously different to what they had known in
Wales. They began to starve until one of them, by chance, discovered
that the way to have wheat and food was not to attempt to turn the
desert into a glen, but to develop an irrigation schema some 50 miles
to the South, on the banks of the Lower Chubut river. Gaiman and
Dolavon are the Westernmost towns of this settlement on the Atlantic
coast of Chubut.

The colony then began to thrive, and to expand towards the Andes.
There is even a chain of peaks across the Chilean-Argentinian border,
to the West of the Welsh founded towns of Esquel and Trevelín
(Trewellin), known as Welshmen Ridge (Cordón de los Galeses). They
almost reached the Pacific. In the meantime, General Roca had given
true sense to the formal Argentinian presence in Patagonia, and the
Welsh had to agree to get into the Argentinian community, which, on
the other side, they did with quite gladly; this should be compared
to the situation in Tierra del Fuego, where Rev. Bridges, who used to
put a British Flag in his Anglican Mission, turned the invitation he
received from Governor Lasserre to the foundation ceremony of Ushuaia
into scrap paper (he wrote some lines of his Yaghan-English
dictionary on the back of the invitation; but Tierra del Fuego, then,
was more strategic, indeed, for Britain, than the Chubut River
Valley).

There, for instance, in
> the little town of Gaiman there is a lot of teahouses with extremely
> long names, that sound as "Qwertpoiuyasdfglkjhzxcvmnb" and that it is
> supposed means something in gaelic. There you can eat the famous
> "black cake" and other tasteful cakes with, possibly, the most
> extraordinary tea in the whole Argentina, served by old ladies that,
> by some strange reason, like shakespearian witches.

I don't know if they LIKE the witches, but some of them certainly
look like witches. Which does not deter intelligent passers by from
tasting their delicious and Gargantuan "Welsh teas". These "teas" are
so Mammooth sized, the amount of food that comes with the tea so
Brobdingangian, that I have always wondered if these were not Welsh
Jewish Mothers.

>From the speakers
> you can hear wonderful and delightful choruses, one of the
> specialities of this people. The influence of this is so big in the
> region that the gaelic choruses that use to participate in
> international meetings, are formed not only by descendants of gaelic
> but of very argentinian, spanish, italic people, that sing in a
> language that they don't understand, if somebody can do it.

In fact, the only Eistedfodd outside Wales is celebrated in Trelew,
the main city of the Chubut Valley. It has recently been transformed
into an International Chorus Encounter.

The Chubut Welsh became a middle class of farm owners, who were
rapidly replaced as a ruling class by the large landowners who grew
sheep for export to Britain around 1900/1910.

They have kept Celtic music alive, then, but never gained any
national trascendency. On the other hand, they have remained mostly
in Chubut, rarely migrating to the large towns in the North.

The
> strange in Buenos Aires case is that it is not this kind of people who
> follow the new celtic fashion, but very middle class people from
> diverse origins that nothing have to do with celtic inheritance. One
> of the worst products of this is the attempt of the shopping centers
> to celebrate Halloween. Unfortunately this is more a consequence of
> the "americanization" of the middle class, than of the influence of
> the old and interesting celtic culture. But, I must say, the attempt
> has not been successful. After some years it seems that they have
> finished with the experience.

Moreover, descendants of Irish and of Scots in Buenos Aires are not
members of the lower ranks of society, rather the opposite.




Néstor Miguel Gorojovsky
gorojovsky at inea.com.ar

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 00:41:00 -0300
From: "Nestor Miguel Gorojovsky" <gorojovsky at inea.com.ar>
Subject: Re: Query: Who put so many of us on that f*ing list?

En relación a Re: Query: Who put so many of us on that f*ing li,
el 23 Jun 00, a las 22:28, Jose G. Perez dijo:

> 1. Who is Malecki?

As Bart Simpson uses to say: "You do not want to know" (well, that's
the version in Spanish at least)



Néstor Miguel Gorojovsky
gorojovsky at inea.com.ar

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 11:45:51 -0400
From: Yoshie Furuhashi <furuhashi.1 at osu.edu>
Subject: US 'supported anti-left terror in Italy'

US 'supported anti-left terror in Italy'

Report claims Washington used a strategy of tension in the cold war
to stabilise the centre-right

Philip Willan in Rome
Saturday June 24, 2000
The Guardian

The United States was accused of playing a large part in the campaign
of anti-communist terrorism in Italy during the cold war, in a report
released yesterday by the Left Democrat party.

The explicit accusation is contained in a draft report to a
parliamentary commission on terrorism.

The formerly communist LDP is the biggest party in Giuliano Amato's
centre-left government, and the report could sour relations between
Italy and the United States and unleash a storm of domestic political
controversy.

The 300-page report says that the United States was responsible for
inspiring a "strategy of tension" in which indiscriminate bombing of
the public and the threat of a rightwing coup were used to stabilise
centre-right political control of the country.

Those who carried out the attacks were rarely caught, it said,
because "those massacres, those bombs, those military actions had
been organised or promoted or supported by men inside Italian state
institutions and, as has been discovered more recently, by men linked
to the structures of United States intelligence".

Valter Bielli, a Left Democrat member of parliament and one of the
authors of the report, said his party's conclusions were based on
recent judicial discoveries and a re-elaboration of information that
had been available for many years but had not been adequately
understood.

"I am convinced that the intervention of the Americans in Italy is
now a historically proven fact," he said.

"They interfered to prevent the Communist party from achieving power
by democratic means. The communist threat no longer exists and it
would be appropriate if the Americans themselves helped us to clarify
what happened in the past."

Mr Bielli said he was worried about the possible implications of the
report for relations between Italy and the US, but he hoped it would
contribute to the creation of a new Nato in which all countries
enjoyed equal weight and dignity.

"During the cold war the east was under communist domination, but the
west too had become, in a certain sense, an American colony," he said.

The report claims that US intelligence agents were informed in
advance about several rightwing terrorist bombings, including the
December 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing in Milan and the Piazza della
Loggia bombing in Brescia five years later, but did nothing to alert
the Italian authorities or to prevent the attacks from taking place.

It also alleges that Pino Rauti, a journalist and founder of the
far-right Ordine Nuovo (new order) subversive organ isation, received
regular funding from a press officer at the US embassy in Rome.

"So even before the 'stabilising' plans that Atlantic circles had
prepared for Italy became operational through the bombings, one of
the leading members of the subversive right was literally in the pay
of the American embassy in Rome," the report says.

Mr Rautinow heads the small rightwing MSI Fiamma-Tricolore party, and
suggestions that he and other rightwing politicians still actively
involved in parliamentary politics had failed to cut their links to
terrorist extremists have drawn furious rebuttals from the
centre-right opposition.

The National Alliance leader, Gianfranco Fini, described the document
as a "miserable report" and the centrist Republican party said it was
worthy of a 1970s Maoist group.

"These are allegations that have come up over the last 20 years and
there is absolutely nothing to them," a source at the US embassy in
Rome said.

To Aldo Giannuli, a historian who works as a consultant to the
parliamentary terrorism commission, the release of the Left
Democrats' report is a manoeuvre dictated primarily by domestic
political considerations.

"Since they have been in power the Left Democrats have given us very
little help in gaining access to security service archives," he said.

"This is a falsely courageous report. The real issue today is gaining
access to Nato's archives. There has been no impulse on this front
from the government."

http://www.guardianunlimited.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,335764,00.html

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 24 Jun 2000 13:35:11 -0300
From: "Nestor Miguel Gorojovsky" <gorojovsky at inea.com.ar>
Subject: (Fwd) Re: [listageografia] Protecionismo e minha lojinha

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From:                   "MARCOS ANTONIO CORREA" <marcoscorrea at uol.com.br>
Date sent:              Sat, 24 Jun 2000 11:30:58 -0300
Send reply to:          listageografia at eGroups.com
Subject:                Re: [listageografia] Protecionismo e minha lojinha

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Amigo, creio que este artigo vem ao encontro de suas
preocupa=E7=F5es.
Um abra=E7o, Marcos


      Edi=E7=E3o brasileira
      ano 1 n=FAmero 4=20
       =20

         Escolha o artigo   1.EDITORIAL   - Um mundo norte-americano
         =
2.DOSSI=CA ESPECIAL   - Dominar cora=E7=F5es e mentes   - A nova =
b=EDblia de Tio Sam   - A resist=EDvel ascens=E3o de Ronald McDonald
- - = O imperialismo da virtude   - Fascinantes business schools   - A
palavra = sup=E9rflua   - Filo-americanos =E0 beira de um ataque de
nervos   - A = l=EDngua "dolarizada"   3.GLOBALIZA=C7=C3O,
RESIST=CANCIAS E = ALTERNATIVAS    [Dossi=EA "Nova Economia"]   - O
susto = (apresenta=E7=E3o)   - Rumo a um novo crack?   - O romance do
fim do = mundo   - Os escravos do telemarketing   - Por uma economia
plural   = 4.CONJUNTURA INTERNACIONAL   - Timor: O duro caminho da
independ=EAncia  =
 - Timor: A sombra de um tribunal internacional   - Zimb=E1bue: =
Radicalismo de fachada   - A batalha de Londres   - A hist=F3ria =
esquecida da autonomia cultural   - Da Hungria a Chiapas   - Um luto =
subversivo na Tun=EDsia   5. CULTURA, CI=CANCIA, AMBIENTE, ARTE E =
M=CDDIA   - A tenta=E7=E3o perigosa dos exames de DNA   - O lucro =
comanda os bancos de genes   - A estranha =E9tica dos jornalistas   -
= Hollywood contra a diversidade cultural   - Woody Allen e as
mulheres   = 6. LIVROS E ESPET=C1CULOS   - A reinven=E7=E3o do teatro
pol=EDtico   - = Um tal de Stalin Mart=EDnez   - Quando o pr=F3prio
nome fere =20
       =20
      UM MUNDO NORTE-AMERICANO=20
      Dominar cora=E7=F5es e mentes=20
      Com um passado genocida, escravagista, expansionista e =
colonialista, os Estados Unidos da Am=E9rica do Norte, talvez cansados
= de sua excessiva brutalidade, aspiram agora a se instalar
pacificamente = em nossos c=E9rebros e seduzir nossos cora=E7=F5es=20

      Ignacio Ramonet*=20


    =20

    =20
      Os colonizados e seus opressores sabem que a rela=E7=E3o de =
domina=E7=E3o n=E3o se baseia apenas na supremacia da for=E7a. Passado
o = tempo da conquista, soa a hora de controlar as mentes. A
domina=E7=E3o = =E9 mais eficaz se o dominado ficar inconsciente.
Justamente por isso = =E9 que o grande desafio que se coloca =E0
dura=E7=E3o de um imp=E9rio = consiste, a longo prazo, em sua
capacidade de domesticar as mentes.=20
    =20
      O Pent=E1gono tem gastos, a t=EDtulo de pesquisa militar, da
      ordem =
de 31 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares, o equivalente ao or=E7amento total da =
Defesa na Fran=E7a  Com um passado genocida (contra os =EDndios), =
escravagista (contra os negros), expansionista (contra os mexicanos) e
= colonialista (contra os porto-riquenhos), os Estados Unidos da
Am=E9rica = do Norte, talvez cansados de sua excessiva brutalidade,
aspiram agora a = se instalar pacificamente nos c=E9rebros de todos os
n=E3o-americanos e = seduzir seus cora=E7=F5es.=20
      Curiosamente, foi na tradicional Europa ocidental que esse
      projeto =
imperial encontrou menos resist=EAncia (leia o artigo de Serge Halimi
= nesta edi=E7=E3o). H=E1, em primeiro lugar, raz=F5es pol=EDticas
para = isso: os Estados Unidos nasceram da primeira revolu=E7=E3o =
democr=E1tica, a de 1776, treze anos antes da revolu=E7=E3o francesa.
= H=E1 tamb=E9m raz=F5es hist=F3ricas: nenhum Estado europeu -- com =
exce=E7=E3o da Inglaterra, no s=E9culo XVIII, e da Espanha, no final
do = s=E9culo XIX -- teve os norte-americanos como inimigos. Pelo =
contr=E1rio, como "pa=EDs da liberdade", os Estados Unidos acolheram =
milh=F5es de refugiados e exilados europeus; e, por ocasi=E3o das duas
= guerras mundiais (1914-1918 e 1939-1945) comportaram-se como amigos
do = Velho Continente, intervindo, de forma decisiva, em favor da
liberdade e = contra as pot=EAncias militaristas ou fascistas.=20

      Hegemonia militar incontest=E1vel=20

      Em 1989-1991, os Estados Unidos ganharam a guerra fria por
      nocaute =
frente =E0 Uni=E3o Sovi=E9tica, arrastando a queda do Muro de Berlim
e, = na seq=FC=EAncia, a democratiza=E7=E3o dos regimes da Europa
central e = oriental.=20

    =20
      Os espi=F5es das v=E1rias ag=EAncias de servi=E7os secretos =
est=E3o presentes o tempo todo e por toda a parte: espionando amigos e
= inimigos  No plano geopol=EDtico, os Estados Unidos encontram-se
numa = situa=E7=E3o de hegemonia jamais conhecida por outro pa=EDs. Do
ponto de = vista militar, sua for=E7a =E9 esmagadora. N=E3o s=F3 s=E3o
a principal = pot=EAncia nuclear e espacial, como tamb=E9m mar=EDtima.
S=E3o o =FAnico = pa=EDs a possuir uma frota de guerra em cada um dos
oceanos e em cada um = dos principais bra=E7os de mar do globo. E
disp=F5em de bases militares, = de reabastecimento e de escuta em
todos os continentes.=20
      O Pent=E1gono tem gastos, a t=EDtulo de pesquisa militar, da
      ordem =
de 31 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares, o equivalente ao or=E7amento total da =
Defesa na Fran=E7a. Em mat=E9ria de armamento, est=E1 v=E1rias =
gera=E7=F5es =E0 frente. As for=E7as armadas norte-americanas (1,4 =
milh=E3o de soldados) t=EAm condi=E7=F5es de identificar, seguir e =
escutar o que quer que seja -- no ar, em terra ou debaixo d'=E1gua. =
Podem ver praticamente tudo sem serem vistas e, mesmo sem estarem sob
= amea=E7a, podem destruir qualquer alvo, de dia ou de noite, com
extrema = precis=E3o. 1=20

      Regente da pol=EDtica internacional=20

      Al=E9m disso, Washington disp=F5e de uma impressionante
      variedade =
de ag=EAncias de informa=E7=F5es -- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),
= National Security Agency (NSA), National Reconnaissance Office
(NRO), = Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) -- que empregam mais de 200
mil = pessoas e cujo or=E7amento supera 23 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares.
Seus = espi=F5es est=E3o presentes o tempo todo e por toda a parte.
Espionando = amigos e inimigos. Roubam segredos diplom=E1ticos,
militares, = industriais, tecnol=F3gicos e cient=EDficos.=20

    =20
      O peso de Washington =E9 decisivo dentro das inst=E2ncias =
multilaterais que determinam os destinos do mundo: ONU, G7, FMI, Banco
= Mundial, Otan etc.  No que se refere a rela=E7=F5es exteriores, a =
hiperpot=EAncia norte-americana rege a pol=EDtica internacional. E =
acompanha as crises em todos os continentes. Pois tem interesses por =
toda a parte e =E9 o =FAnico pa=EDs com poder de agir, entre todos os
= que comp=F5em o tabuleiro de xadrez da geopol=EDtica mundial: do
Oriente = M=E9dio ao Kosovo, de Timor a Taiwan, do Paquist=E3o ao
C=E1ucaso, do = Congo a Angola, de Cuba =E0 Col=F4mbia.=20
      O peso de Washington =E9 igualmente decisivo dentro das =
inst=E2ncias multilaterais cujas op=E7=F5es determinam os destinos do
= mundo: Organiza=E7=E3o das Na=E7=F5es Unidas (ONU), G7 (grupo dos
sete = pa=EDses mais industrializados), Fundo Monet=E1rio
Internacional (FMI), = Banco Mundial (Bird), Organiza=E7=E3o Mundial
do Com=E9rcio (OMC), = Organiza=E7=E3o de Coopera=E7=E3o e
Desenvolvimento Econ=F4mico (OCDE), = Organiza=E7=E3o do Tratado do
Atl=E2ntico Norte (Otan) etc.=20

      O dom=EDnio na =E1rea cient=EDfica=20

      Mas como a superioridade de um imp=E9rio, no contexto =
contempor=E2neo, n=E3o se mede apenas pelos trunfos militares e =
diplom=E1ticos, os Estados Unidos tamb=E9m garantiram o dom=EDnio na =
=E1rea cient=EDfica. A cada ano, sugam, como uma bomba, dezenas de =
milhares de c=E9rebros (estudantes, pesquisadores, graduados) do resto
= do mundo, que v=EAm para suas universidades, seus laborat=F3rios,
suas = empresas. Isto permitiu-lhes, nos =FAltimos dez anos, abocanhar
o = pr=EAmio Nobel de F=EDsica (19 de um total de 26), de Medicina (17
entre = 24) e de Qu=EDmica (13 entre 22).=20

    =20
      O rei-d=F3lar permanece a moeda suprema; em 83% das
      transa=E7=F5es =
de divisas, o d=F3lar =E9 uma das moedas negociadas  Tamb=E9m no que
se = refere =E0s redes econ=F4micas, os Estados Unidos exercem uma
supremacia = indiscut=EDvel. O seu Produto Interno Bruto foi, em 1999,
de 8,7 = trilh=F5es de d=F3lares (uma cifra mais de seis vezes
superior =E0quela = da Fran=E7a). O rei-d=F3lar permanece a moeda
suprema; em 83% das = transa=E7=F5es de divisas, o d=F3lar =E9 uma das
moedas negociadas. 2 A = Bolsa de Nova York constitui o bar=F4metro
financeiro universal e seus = solu=E7os, tais como os do =EDndice
Nasdaq no m=EAs de abril (leia = dossi=EA sobre a Nova Economia nesta
edi=E7=E3o), fazem tremer o = planeta. Finalmente, h=E1 ainda o enorme
peso dos fundos de pens=E3o = norte-americanos -- mastodontes que
reinam sobre os mercados financeiros = --, que intimidam todos os
atores da esfera econ=F4mica mundial.=20
      A "domina=E7=E3o carism=E1tica"=20

      Os Estados Unidos tamb=E9m s=E3o a primeira ciberpot=EAncia. =
Dominam todas as inova=E7=F5es tecnol=F3gicas, as ind=FAstrias
digitais, = extens=F5es e proje=E7=F5es (materiais ou imateriais) de
toda a ordem. = =C9 o pa=EDs da Web, das infovias, da "nova economia",
dos gigantes da = inform=E1tica (Microsoft, IBM, Intel) e dos
campe=F5es da Internet = (Yahoo, Amazon, America On Line).=20

      E por qu=EA uma t=E3o esmagadora supremacia militar, =
diplom=E1tica, econ=F4mica e tecnol=F3gica n=E3o suscita um maior =
n=FAmero de cr=EDticas ou de resist=EAncias? Porque, al=E9m do mais,
os = Estados Unidos da Am=E9rica do Norte exercem uma hegemonia no
campo = cultural e ideol=F3gico. Det=EAm o dom=EDnio do simb=F3lico --
o que = lhes permite acesso ao que Max Weber chama a "domina=E7=E3o =
carism=E1tica".=20

      O vocabul=E1rio, os conceitos e o sentido=20

    =20
      Exercem uma hegemonia no campo cultural e ideol=F3gico. Det=EAm
      o =
dom=EDnio do simb=F3lico -- o acesso ao que Max Weber chama a =
"domina=E7=E3o carism=E1tica"  Em in=FAmeros setores, os Estados
Unidos = asseguraram o controle do vocabul=E1rio, dos conceitos e do
sentido. Em = caso de necessidade, obrigam a que o problema criado por
eles seja = relatado numa linguagem que eles pr=F3prios prop=F5em.
Fornecem = c=F3digos que permitem resolver enigmas que eles pr=F3prios
imp=F5em. E, = para faz=EA-lo, disp=F5em de grande quantidade de
institui=E7=F5es de = pesquisa e de "reservat=F3rios de id=E9ias"
(think tanks) que contam com = a colabora=E7=E3o de milhares de
analistas e especialistas. Que produzem = informa=E7=E3o sobre
quest=F5es jur=EDdicas, sociais e econ=F4micas numa = perspectiva
favor=E1vel =E0s teses neoliberais, =E0 globaliza=E7=E3o e = ao mundo
de neg=F3cios. O fruto de seu trabalho, generosamente = financiado,
=E9 repassado aos meios de comunica=E7=E3o e difundido em = escala
mundial. 3=20
      Os principais fabricantes desta persuas=E3o clandestina -- o =
Manhattan Institute, a Brookings Institution, a Heritage Foundation, o
= American Enterprise Institut, o Cato Institut -- n=E3o hesitam em =
convidar para seus semin=E1rios e debates, de forma generosa e
maci=E7a, = jornalistas, professores, administradores p=FAblicos,
dirigentes que, = posteriormente, ir=E3o se encarregar de disseminar a
boa nova.=20

      Cavalos de Tr=F3ia do senhor=20

      Apoiados no poder da informa=E7=E3o e das tecnologias, os
      Estados =
Unidos conseguem estabelecer, com a cumplicidade passiva dos
dominados, = aquilo que se poderia chamar uma opress=E3o simp=E1tica,
ou um delicioso = despotismo. Principalmente quando esse poder exerce,
simultaneamente, o = controle sobre as ind=FAstrias culturais e o
dom=EDnio sobre o nosso = imagin=E1rio.=20

    =20
      Os fabricantes da persuas=E3o clandestina convidam jornalistas,
      =
professores e dirigentes que, posteriormente, ir=E3o se encarregar de
= disseminar a boa nova  Os Estados Unidos povoam nossas mentes com
uma = multid=E3o de her=F3is da m=EDdia. Cavalos de Tr=F3ia do senhor
na = intimidade de nossos c=E9rebros. Ao mesmo tempo que n=E3o compram
= sen=E3o 1% dos filmes no exterior, inundam o mundo inteiro com as =
produ=E7=F5es de Hollywood (leia, nesta edi=E7=E3o, o artigo de Carlos
= Pardo). E tele-filmes, desenhos animados, video-clipes, hist=F3rias
em = quadrinhos etc. Isso, sem falar nos modelos de roupas,
urban=EDsticos ou = culin=E1rios (ler o artigo de Rick Fantasia, nesta
edi=E7=E3o).=20
      O templo, lugar sagrado onde s=E3o cultuados os novos =EDcones,
      =
=E9 o shopping center, catedral erigida =E0 gl=F3ria de todo o
consumo. = Nesses lugares de fervor, elabora-se atrav=E9s do planeta
uma = sensibilidade fabricada por logotipos, por stars, por
can=E7=F5es, por = =EDdolos, por marcas, por objetos, por cartazes,
por festas (cf. a = crescente divulga=E7=E3o, pelos meios de
comunica=E7=E3o, do halloween). =


      Tudo isso acompanhado por uma ret=F3rica sedutora de liberdade
      de =
escolha e de liberdade de consumo. E martelado por uma publicidade =
obsessiva e onipresente (as despesas com publicidade chegam a mais de
= 200 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares por ano, nos Estados Unidos!) que se
dirige = tanto aos s=EDmbolos quanto aos bens. 4 O marketing tornou-se
t=E3o = sofisticado que aspira a vender, n=E3o uma marca, mas uma
identidade; = n=E3o um tra=E7o social, mas uma personalidade. Sempre
segundo o = princ=EDpio: ter =E9 ser.=20

      O grito de alerta de Huxley=20

      Portanto, =E9 urgente lembrar o grito de alerta lan=E7ado por =
Aldous Huxley em 1931: "Numa =E9poca de tecnologia avan=E7ada, o maior
= perigo para as id=E9ias, para a cultura e para o esp=EDrito pode
mais = facilmente vir de um inimigo sorridente que de um advers=E1rio
que = inspira o terror e o =F3dio."=20

    =20
      Eles povoam nossas mentes com uma multid=E3o de her=F3is da =
m=EDdia. Cavalos de Tr=F3ia do senhor na intimidade de nossos
c=E9rebros =
 Senhor dos s=EDmbolos, o imp=E9rio norte-americano nos =E9
 apresentado =
com a apar=EAncia sedutora dos encantadores de sempre. S=E3o propostas
= atividades de lazer para dar e vender, divers=F5es a granel,
docerias = para os olhos. O imp=E9rio j=E1 n=E3o procura obter nossa
submiss=E3o = pela for=E7a, mas pelo encantamento, n=E3o atendendo a
uma ordem, mas = por nosso pr=F3prio consentimento. N=E3o pela
amea=E7a de puni=E7=E3o, = mas apostando em nossa sede de prazer. Por
nossa iniciativa, esse novo = hipnotizador penetra em nosso pensamento
e ali enxerta id=E9ias que = n=E3o s=E3o nossas. Para melhor nos
subjugar, nos escravizar e nos = domesticar. =20
      Leia mais sobre o tema, nesta mesma edi=E7=E3o:=20

        a.. Um mundo norte-americano=20
        b.. A nova b=EDblia de Tio Sam=20
        c.. A resist=EDvel ascens=E3o de Ronald McDonald=20
        d.. O imperialismo da virtude=20
        e.. Fascinantes business schools=20
        f.. A palavra sup=E9rflua=20
        g.. Filo-americanos =E0 beira de um ataque de nervos=20
        h.. A l=EDngua "dolarizada"=20
      =20
      =20
      Traduzido por J=F4 Amado.=20

      =20
      * Editor do Le Monde Diplomatique.  [voltar]=20

      1   Le Nouvel Observateur, Paris, 3 de junho de 1999.
      [voltar]=20

      2   Cf. Peter Gowan, "Le r=E9gime dollar-Wall Street =
d'h=E9g=E9monie mondiale", in Actuel Marx, n=BA 27, edi=E7=E3o
especial = consagrada a "L'h=E9g=E9monie am=E9ricaine", datada do
primeiro semestre = de 2000, ed. PUF, Paris.  [voltar]=20

      3   Ler, de Herbert I. Schiller, "La Fabrique des ma=EEtres. =
D=E9cervelage =E0 l'am=E9ricaine", Le Monde Diplomatique, agosto de =
1998.  [voltar]=20

      4   Ler, de Benjamin R. Barber, "Culture McWorld contre =
d=E9mocratie", Le Monde Diplomatique, agosto de 1998.  [voltar]=20

    =20

- -----Mensagem Original-----=20
  De: Camillozzi=20
  Para: listageografia at eGroups.com=20
  Enviada em: Sexta-feira, 23 de Junho de 2000 19:54
  Assunto: [listageografia] Protecionismo e minha lojinha


  Para refletir:
    Sou estudante de geografia e meio ambiente e tenho um micro
    empresa =
e
  tenho a seguinte opini=E3o:
    Nas turbul=EAncias passadas da economia brasileira ( crise da Asia
    e =
depois
  da Russia), tinha uma opini=E3o extremamaente Neo-liberalista,mas
  hoje =
come=E7o
  a achar que esta pol=EDtica est=E1 sacrificando muito nossos
  irm=E3os =
e Los
  Hermanos (vizinhos da America Latina).
    O neo-liberalismo dos pa=EDses desenvolvidos, est=E1 se mostrando
    =
traidor com
  nossas privatiza=E7=F5es com o chamado "Protecionismo".Ou seja n=F3s
  =
Devemos
  comprar deles e eles n=E0o compram de n=F3s , protegendo seu mercado
  =
interno ou
  melhor enriquecendo seu mercado interno muito mais.Ai que entro com
  =
minha
  pequena loja:
  - O que =E9 que eu tenho haver com isso? N=E3o =E9 nenhum Americano
  ou =
Europeu que
  vai vir aqui comprar na minha loja.
   Nosso  povo est=E1 sendo sacrificado , o rico fica mais rico =
especulando e o
  meio ambiente continua a ser degradado sob =E0s ben=E7=E3os dos =
Estados Unidos e
  os loucos pol=EDticos do sul do pa=EDs com seus "interesses" na =
Amaz=F5nia.
   Outro assunto interessante:
   Recentimente vi um fato chocante de um prefeito da cidade de =
Divin=F3polis/MG
  , onde um rapaz ,gar=E7on, que fora morto por n=E3o se sabe quem , =
acusaram 3
  medigos pr=F3ximos a esse assainato .Logo , sofreram retalia=E7=F5es
  =
por parte
  daquela cidade onde sem julgamento quiseram linchar os mendigos.
    O Prefeito se manifestou a favor dessa sociedade , severamente =
dizendo que
  tem que "acabar" com os mendigos da cidade , tira-los de
  Divin=F3polis.Incentivando a popula=E7=E3o a trata-los no mesmo =
sentido.
    Essa reportagem , que fora exibida na Tv, foi at=E9 mesma
    criticada =
pelo
  pr=F3prio rep=F3rter dizendo que "Ora , essa =E9 uma quest=E0o a ser
  =
tratada de
  forma racional , como um problema social".
    A Dial=E9tica por=E9m , nesta cidade , est=E1 em que, sendo a =
capital mineira da
  moda , tem que manter as apar=EAncias.
    Est=E1 na hora , acredito, de parar com essa id=E9ia econ=F4mica e
    =
ter uma
  pol=EDtica mais humana ,segurar o que =E9 nosso , pois acredito que
  a =
aventura
  das privatiza=E7=F5es n=E3o deram certo , caiu mais de 50% de meus =
clientes . E
  ainda fico vendo os Pa=EDses do Norte ficando cada vez mais ricos e
  =
quando tem
  crise nos Estados Unidos =E9 porque tem muito dinheiro rolando por =
l=E1 . Que
  dial=E9tica mais absurda!!!!
    Vamos realizar plebiscitos antes das pr=F3ximas elei=E7=F5es , =
discutindo nossa
  soberania e nossos recursos naturais . Em falar em elei=E7=F5es , =
alguem j=E1 viu
  o document=E1rio da BBC de Londres : "Al=E9m do Cidad=E3o Kane" ,
  Camillozzi.



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  As principais mensagens est=E3o catalogadas por assunto em =
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<DIV><FONT color=3D#0000ff face=3D"Arial Black" size=3D3>Amigo, creio
que e= ste artigo=20 vem ao encontro de suas
preocupa=E7=F5es.</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT color=3D#0000ff
face=3D"Arial Black">Um abra=E7o,</FONT></DIV> <DIV><FONT
color=3D#0000ff face=3D"Arial Black">Marcos</FONT></DIV>
<DIV> </DIV><FONT color=3D#0000ff face=3D"Arial Black"> <TABLE
bgColor=3D#ffcc00 border=3D0 cellPadding=3D0 cellSpacing=3D0 width=
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    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><IMG alt=3D"Le Monde Diplomatique"
    heigh=
t=3D40=20
      src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/loguinho.gif"
      width=3D120><BR><FONT fa=
ce=3Darial=20
      size=3D-2>Edi=E7=E3o brasileira<BR>ano 1 n=FAmero 4
      </FONT><BR><IMG h=
eight=3D1=20
      src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.gif" width=3D100> </TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><IMG height=3D1
    src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.=
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      width=3D430><BR>
      <FORM name=3Dlista><SELECT name=3Dartigos onchange=3Dabre();>
      <OPTION=
=20
        selected>Escolha o artigo</OPTION> <OPTION> </OPTION>=20
        <OPTION>1.EDITORIAL</OPTION> <OPTION=20
        value=3D../../aberto/0005/01.htm>  - Um mundo=20
        norte-americano</OPTION> <OPTION> </OPTION>
        <OPTION>2.DOSSI=CA=
=20
        ESPECIAL</OPTION> <OPTION value=3D02.htm>  - Dominar
        cora=
=E7=F5es e=20
        mentes</OPTION> <OPTION value=3D03.htm>  - A nova
        b=EDbli=
a de Tio=20
        Sam</OPTION> <OPTION value=3D04.htm>  - A
        resist=EDvel as=
cens=E3o de=20
        Ronald McDonald</OPTION> <OPTION value=3D05.htm>  -
        O=20 imperialismo da virtude</OPTION> <OPTION
        value=3D06.htm> &nbsp=
;-=20
        Fascinantes business schools</OPTION> <OPTION
        value=3D07.htm> =
 -=20
        A palavra sup=E9rflua</OPTION> <OPTION
        value=3D08.htm>  -=
=20
        Filo-americanos =E0 beira de um ataque de nervos</OPTION>
        <OPTION=20 value=3D09.htm>  - A l=EDngua
        "dolarizada"</OPTION>=20 <OPTION> </OPTION>
        <OPTION>3.GLOBALIZA=C7=C3O, RESIST=CANCIAS =
E=20
        ALTERNATIVAS</OPTION> <OPTION>   [Dossi=EA E ESPET=C1CULOS</OPTION> =
<OPTION=20
        value=3D27.htm>  - A reinven=E7=E3o do teatro
        pol=EDtico<=
/OPTION>=20
        <OPTION value=3D28.htm>  - Um tal de Stalin
        Mart=EDnez</O=
PTION>=20
        <OPTION value=3D29.htm>  - Quando o pr=F3prio
        nome=20
      fere</OPTION></SELECT> </FORM></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<TABLE border=3D0 cellPadding=3D10 cellSpacing=3D0>
  <TBODY>
  <TR>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><IMG height=3D1
    src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.=
gif"=20
      width=3D105> </TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><IMG height=3D1
    src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.=
gif"=20
      width=3D415><BR><A name=3Dinicio><FONT face=3Darial size=3D-1>UM
      MUND=
O=20
      NORTE-AMERICANO</FONT>=20
      <H1><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial>Dominar cora=E7=F5es e
      mentes=
=20
      </FONT></H1><FONT color=3D#cc0000><I>Com um passado genocida,
      escrava=
gista,=20
      expansionista e colonialista, os Estados Unidos da Am=E9rica do
      Norte=
,=20
      talvez cansados de sua excessiva brutalidade, aspiram agora a se
      inst=
alar=20
      pacificamente em nossos c=E9rebros e seduzir nossos
      cora=E7=F5es</I>=
=20
      <P></FONT>
      <DIV align=3Dright><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial
      size=3D-1><A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#autor">Ignacio=2
      0 Ramonet</A>*</FONT>=20
      <P><BR></P></DIV></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<TABLE border=3D0 cellPadding=3D10 cellSpacing=3D0 width=3D564>
  <TBODY>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><IMG height=3D1=20
      src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.gif" width=3D105><BR></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><IMG height=3D1
    src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/transp.=
gif"=20
      width=3D415><BR>Os colonizados e seus opressores sabem que a
      rela=E7=
=E3o de=20
      domina=E7=E3o n=E3o se baseia apenas na supremacia da for=E7a.
      Passad=
o o tempo da=20
      conquista, soa a hora de controlar as mentes. A domina=E7=E3o
      =E9 mai=
s eficaz se=20
      o dominado ficar inconsciente. Justamente por isso =E9 que o
      grande d=
esafio=20
      que se coloca =E0 dura=E7=E3o de um imp=E9rio consiste, a longo
      prazo=
, em sua=20
      capacidade de domesticar as mentes.=20
      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>O=20
      Pent=E1gono tem gastos, a t=EDtulo de pesquisa militar, da ordem
      de 3=
1 bilh=F5es=20
      de d=F3lares, o equivalente ao or=E7amento total da Defesa na
      Fran=E7=
a</B>=20
      </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop>Com um passado genocida (contra os =EDndios),
    escravag=
ista=20
      (contra os negros), expansionista (contra os mexicanos) e
      colonialist=
a=20
      (contra os porto-riquenhos), os Estados Unidos da Am=E9rica do
      Norte,=
 talvez=20
      cansados de sua excessiva brutalidade, aspiram agora a se
      instalar=20 pacificamente nos c=E9rebros de todos os
      n=E3o-americanos e seduzir s=
eus=20
      cora=E7=F5es.=20
      <P>Curiosamente, foi na tradicional Europa ocidental que esse
      projeto=
=20
      imperial encontrou menos resist=EAncia (<I>leia o artigo de
      Serge Hal=
imi=20
      nesta edi=E7=E3o</I>). H=E1, em primeiro lugar, raz=F5es
      pol=EDticas =
para isso: os=20
      Estados Unidos nasceram da primeira revolu=E7=E3o democr=E1tica,
      a de=
 1776,=20
      treze anos antes da revolu=E7=E3o francesa. H=E1 tamb=E9m
      raz=F5es hi=
st=F3ricas:=20
      nenhum Estado europeu -- com exce=E7=E3o da Inglaterra, no
      s=E9culo X=
VIII, e da=20
      Espanha, no final do s=E9culo XIX -- teve os norte-americanos
      como in=
imigos.=20
      Pelo contr=E1rio, como "pa=EDs da liberdade", os Estados Unidos
      acolh=
eram=20
      milh=F5es de refugiados e exilados europeus; e, por ocasi=E3o
      das dua=
s guerras=20
      mundiais (1914-1918 e 1939-1945) comportaram-se como amigos do
      Velho=
=20
      Continente, intervindo, de forma decisiva, em favor da liberdade
      e co=
ntra=20
      as pot=EAncias militaristas ou fascistas.=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>Hegemonia militar=20
      incontest=E1vel</B></FONT>=20 <P>Em 1989-1991, os Estados Unidos
      ganharam a guerra fria por nocaute=
=20
      frente =E0 Uni=E3o Sovi=E9tica, arrastando a queda do Muro de
      Berlim =
e, na=20
      seq=FC=EAncia, a democratiza=E7=E3o dos regimes da Europa
      central e o=
riental.=20
      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>Os=20
      espi=F5es das v=E1rias ag=EAncias de servi=E7os secretos est=E3o
      pres=
entes o tempo=20
      todo e por toda a parte: espionando amigos e inimigos</B>
      </FONT></TD=
>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop>No plano geopol=EDtico, os Estados Unidos
    encontram-se=
 numa=20
      situa=E7=E3o de hegemonia jamais conhecida por outro pa=EDs. Do
      ponto=
 de vista=20
      militar, sua for=E7a =E9 esmagadora. N=E3o s=F3 s=E3o a
      principal pot=
=EAncia nuclear e=20
      espacial, como tamb=E9m mar=EDtima. S=E3o o =FAnico pa=EDs a
      possuir =
uma frota de=20
      guerra em cada um dos oceanos e em cada um dos principais
      bra=E7os de=
 mar do=20
      globo. E disp=F5em de bases militares, de reabastecimento e de
      escuta=
 em=20
      todos os continentes.=20
      <P><A name=3DAnota1>O Pent=E1gono tem gastos, a t=EDtulo de
      pesquisa =
militar, da=20
      ordem de 31 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares, o equivalente ao or=E7amento
      tota=
l da Defesa=20
      na Fran=E7a. Em mat=E9ria de armamento, est=E1 v=E1rias
      gera=E7=F5es =
=E0 frente. As=20
      for=E7as armadas norte-americanas (1,4 milh=E3o de soldados)
      t=EAm co=
ndi=E7=F5es de=20
      identificar, seguir e escutar o que quer que seja -- no ar, em
      terra =
ou=20
      debaixo d'=E1gua. Podem ver praticamente tudo sem serem vistas
      e, mes=
mo sem=20
      estarem sob amea=E7a, podem destruir qualquer alvo, de dia ou de
      noit=
e, com=20
      extrema precis=E3o. <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#nota1"><SUP><B>1
      </B><=
/SUP></A>=20

      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>Regente da
      pol=EDtica=20 internacional</B></FONT>=20 <P>Al=E9m disso,
      Washington disp=F5e de uma impressionante variedade =
de=20
      ag=EAncias de informa=E7=F5es -- Central Intelligence Agency
      (CIA), N=
ational=20
      Security Agency (NSA), National Reconnaissance Office (NRO),
      Defense=
=20
      Intelligence Agency (DIA) -- que empregam mais de 200 mil
      pessoas e c=
ujo=20
      or=E7amento supera 23 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares. Seus espi=F5es
      est=E3o =
presentes o=20
      tempo todo e por toda a parte. Espionando amigos e inimigos.
      Roubam=20 segredos diplom=E1ticos, militares, industriais,
      tecnol=F3gicos e cie=
nt=EDficos.=20

      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>O=20
      peso de Washington =E9 decisivo dentro das inst=E2ncias
      multilaterais=
 que=20
      determinam os destinos do mundo: ONU, G7, FMI, Banco Mundial,
      Otan=20 etc.</B> </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop>No que se refere a rela=E7=F5es exteriores, a
    hiperpot=
=EAncia=20
      norte-americana rege a pol=EDtica internacional. E acompanha as
      crise=
s em=20
      todos os continentes. Pois tem interesses por toda a parte e =E9
      o =
=FAnico=20
      pa=EDs com poder de agir, entre todos os que comp=F5em o
      tabuleiro de=
 xadrez=20
      da geopol=EDtica mundial: do Oriente M=E9dio ao Kosovo, de Timor
      a Ta=
iwan, do=20
      Paquist=E3o ao C=E1ucaso, do Congo a Angola, de Cuba =E0
      Col=F4mbia.=
=20
      <P>O peso de Washington =E9 igualmente decisivo dentro das
      inst=E2nci=
as=20
      multilaterais cujas op=E7=F5es determinam os destinos do mundo:
      Organ=
iza=E7=E3o=20
      das Na=E7=F5es Unidas (ONU), G7 (grupo dos sete pa=EDses mais
      industr=
ializados),=20
      Fundo Monet=E1rio Internacional (FMI), Banco Mundial (Bird),
      Organiza=
=E7=E3o=20
      Mundial do Com=E9rcio (OMC), Organiza=E7=E3o de Coopera=E7=E3o e
      Dese=
nvolvimento=20
      Econ=F4mico (OCDE), Organiza=E7=E3o do Tratado do Atl=E2ntico
      Norte (=
Otan) etc.=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>O dom=EDnio na
      =E1rea=20 cient=EDfica</B></FONT>=20 <P>Mas como a superioridade
      de um imp=E9rio, no contexto contempor=E2=
neo, n=E3o=20
      se mede apenas pelos trunfos militares e diplom=E1ticos, os
      Estados U=
nidos=20
      tamb=E9m garantiram o dom=EDnio na =E1rea cient=EDfica. A cada
      ano, s=
ugam, como=20
      uma bomba, dezenas de milhares de c=E9rebros (estudantes,
      pesquisador=
es,=20
      graduados) do resto do mundo, que v=EAm para suas universidades,
      seus=
=20
      laborat=F3rios, suas empresas. Isto permitiu-lhes, nos =FAltimos
      dez =
anos,=20
      abocanhar o pr=EAmio Nobel de F=EDsica (19 de um total de 26),
      de Med=
icina (17=20
      entre 24) e de Qu=EDmica (13 entre 22).=20
      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>O=20
      rei-d=F3lar permanece a moeda suprema; em 83% das transa=E7=F5es
      de d=
ivisas, o=20
      d=F3lar =E9 uma das moedas negociadas</B> </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><A name=3DAnota2>Tamb=E9m no que se refere =E0s
    redes =
econ=F4micas,=20
      os Estados Unidos exercem uma supremacia indiscut=EDvel. O seu
      Produt=
o=20
      Interno Bruto foi, em 1999, de 8,7 trilh=F5es de d=F3lares (uma
      cifra=
 mais de=20
      seis vezes superior =E0quela da Fran=E7a). O rei-d=F3lar
      permanece a =
moeda=20
      suprema; em 83% das transa=E7=F5es de divisas, o d=F3lar =E9 uma
      das =
moedas=20
      negociadas. <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#nota2"><SUP><B>2
      </B><=
/SUP></A>=20
      A Bolsa de Nova York constitui o bar=F4metro financeiro
      universal e s=
eus=20
      solu=E7os, tais como os do =EDndice Nasdaq no m=EAs de abril
      (<I>leia=
 dossi=EA=20
      sobre a Nova Economia nesta edi=E7=E3o</I>), fazem tremer o
      planeta.=
=20
      Finalmente, h=E1 ainda o enorme peso dos fundos de pens=E3o
      norte-ame=
ricanos=20
      -- mastodontes que reinam sobre os mercados financeiros --, que
      intim=
idam=20
      todos os atores da esfera econ=F4mica mundial.=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>A "domina=E7=E3o
      carism=E1ti=
ca"</B></FONT>=20
      <P>Os Estados Unidos tamb=E9m s=E3o a primeira ciberpot=EAncia.
      Domin=
am todas as=20
      inova=E7=F5es tecnol=F3gicas, as ind=FAstrias digitais,
      extens=F5es e=
 proje=E7=F5es=20
      (materiais ou imateriais) de toda a ordem. =C9 o pa=EDs da
      <I>Web</I>=
, das=20
      infovias, da "nova economia", dos gigantes da inform=E1tica
      (Microsof=
t, IBM,=20
      Intel) e dos campe=F5es da Internet (Yahoo, Amazon, America On
      Line).=
=20
      <P>E por qu=EA uma t=E3o esmagadora supremacia militar,
      diplom=E1tica=
, econ=F4mica=20
      e tecnol=F3gica n=E3o suscita um maior n=FAmero de cr=EDticas ou
      de r=
esist=EAncias?=20
      Porque, al=E9m do mais, os Estados Unidos da Am=E9rica do Norte
      exerc=
em uma=20
      hegemonia no campo cultural e ideol=F3gico. Det=EAm o dom=EDnio
      do si=
mb=F3lico --=20
      o que lhes permite acesso ao que Max Weber chama a
      "domina=E7=E3o=20 carism=E1tica".=20 <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000
      face=3Darial><B>O vocabul=E1rio, os conceito=
s e o=20
      sentido</B></FONT>=20
      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066
    face=3Darial=20
      size=3D-1><B>Exercem uma hegemonia no campo cultural e
      ideol=F3gico. =
Det=EAm o=20
      dom=EDnio do simb=F3lico -- o acesso ao que Max Weber chama a
      "domina=
=E7=E3o=20
      carism=E1tica"</B> </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop><A name=3DAnota3>Em in=FAmeros setores, os
    Estados Uni=
dos=20
      asseguraram o controle do vocabul=E1rio, dos conceitos e do
      sentido. =
Em caso=20
      de necessidade, obrigam a que o problema criado por eles seja
      relatad=
o=20
      numa linguagem que eles pr=F3prios prop=F5em. Fornecem c=F3digos
      que =
permitem=20
      resolver enigmas que eles pr=F3prios imp=F5em. E, para
      faz=EA-lo, dis=
p=F5em de=20
      grande quantidade de institui=E7=F5es de pesquisa e de
      "reservat=F3ri=
os de=20
      id=E9ias" (<I>think tanks</I>) que contam com a colabora=E7=E3o
      de mi=
lhares de=20
      analistas e especialistas. Que produzem informa=E7=E3o sobre
      quest=F5=
es=20
      jur=EDdicas, sociais e econ=F4micas numa perspectiva favor=E1vel
      =E0s=
 teses=20
      neoliberais, =E0 globaliza=E7=E3o e ao mundo de neg=F3cios. O
      fruto d=
e seu=20
      trabalho, generosamente financiado, =E9 repassado aos meios de
      comuni=
ca=E7=E3o e=20
      difundido em escala mundial. <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#nota3"><SUP><B>3
      </B><=
/SUP></A>=20

      <P>Os principais fabricantes desta persuas=E3o clandestina -- o
      Manha=
ttan=20
      Institute, a Brookings Institution, a Heritage Foundation, o
      American=
=20
      Enterprise Institut, o Cato Institut -- n=E3o hesitam em
      convidar par=
a seus=20
      semin=E1rios e debates, de forma generosa e maci=E7a,
      jornalistas,=20 professores, administradores p=FAblicos,
      dirigentes que, posteriormen=
te,=20
      ir=E3o se encarregar de disseminar a boa nova.=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>Cavalos de Tr=F3ia do
      senhor=
</B></FONT>=20

      <P>Apoiados no poder da informa=E7=E3o e das tecnologias, os
      Estados =
Unidos=20
      conseguem estabelecer, com a cumplicidade passiva dos dominados,
      aqui=
lo=20
      que se poderia chamar uma opress=E3o simp=E1tica, ou um
      delicioso des=
potismo.=20
      Principalmente quando esse poder exerce, simultaneamente, o
      controle =
sobre=20
      as ind=FAstrias culturais e o dom=EDnio sobre o nosso
      imagin=E1rio.=20 <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>Os=20
      fabricantes da persuas=E3o clandestina convidam jornalistas,
      professo=
res e=20
      dirigentes que, posteriormente, ir=E3o se encarregar de
      disseminar a =
boa=20
      nova</B> </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop>Os Estados Unidos povoam nossas mentes com uma
    multid=
=E3o de=20
      her=F3is da m=EDdia. Cavalos de Tr=F3ia do senhor na intimidade
      de no=
ssos=20
      c=E9rebros. Ao mesmo tempo que n=E3o compram sen=E3o 1% dos
      filmes no=
 exterior,=20
      inundam o mundo inteiro com as produ=E7=F5es de Hollywood
      (<I>leia, n=
esta=20
      edi=E7=E3o, o artigo de Carlos Pardo</I>). E tele-filmes,
      desenhos an=
imados,=20
      video-clipes, hist=F3rias em quadrinhos etc. Isso, sem falar nos
      mode=
los de=20
      roupas, urban=EDsticos ou culin=E1rios (<I>ler o artigo de Rick
      Fanta=
sia,=20
      nesta edi=E7=E3o</I>).=20
      <P>O templo, lugar sagrado onde s=E3o cultuados os novos
      =EDcones, =
=E9 o=20
      <I>shopping center</I>, catedral erigida =E0 gl=F3ria de todo o
      consu=
mo.=20
      Nesses lugares de fervor, elabora-se atrav=E9s do planeta uma
      sensibi=
lidade=20
      fabricada por logotipos, por <I>stars</I>, por can=E7=F5es, por
      =EDdo=
los, por=20
      marcas, por objetos, por cartazes, por festas (<I>cf</I>. a
      crescente=
=20
      divulga=E7=E3o, pelos meios de comunica=E7=E3o, do
      <I>halloween</I>).=
=20
      <P><A name=3DAnota4>Tudo isso acompanhado por uma ret=F3rica
      sedutora=
 de=20
      liberdade de escolha e de liberdade de consumo. E martelado por
      uma=20 publicidade obsessiva e onipresente (as despesas com
      publicidade cheg=
am a=20
      mais de 200 bilh=F5es de d=F3lares por ano, nos Estados Unidos!)
      que =
se dirige=20
      tanto aos s=EDmbolos quanto aos bens. <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#nota4"><SUP><B>4
      </B><=
/SUP></A>=20
      O marketing tornou-se t=E3o sofisticado que aspira a vender,
      n=E3o um=
a marca,=20
      mas uma identidade; n=E3o um tra=E7o social, mas uma
      personalidade. S=
empre=20
      segundo o princ=EDpio: ter =E9 ser.=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial><B>O grito de alerta de=20
      Huxley</B></FONT>=20 <P>Portanto, =E9 urgente lembrar o grito de
      alerta lan=E7ado por Aldo=
us Huxley=20
      em 1931: "Numa =E9poca de tecnologia avan=E7ada, o maior perigo
      para =
as=20
      id=E9ias, para a cultura e para o esp=EDrito pode mais
      facilmente vir=
 de um=20
      inimigo sorridente que de um advers=E1rio que inspira o terror e
      o =
=F3dio."=20
      <P></P></TD></TR>
  <TR>
    <TD align=3Dright vAlign=3Dtop><FONT color=3D#330066 face=3Darial
    size=
=3D-1><B>Eles=20
      povoam nossas mentes com uma multid=E3o de her=F3is da m=EDdia.
      Caval=
os de Tr=F3ia=20
      do senhor na intimidade de nossos c=E9rebros</B> </FONT></TD>
    <TD vAlign=3Dtop>Senhor dos s=EDmbolos, o imp=E9rio
    norte-americano nos=
 =E9=20
      apresentado com a apar=EAncia sedutora dos encantadores de
      sempre. S=
=E3o=20
      propostas atividades de lazer para dar e vender, divers=F5es a
      granel=
,=20
      docerias para os olhos. O imp=E9rio j=E1 n=E3o procura obter
      nossa su=
bmiss=E3o=20
      pela for=E7a, mas pelo encantamento, n=E3o atendendo a uma
      ordem, mas=
 por=20
      nosso pr=F3prio consentimento. N=E3o pela amea=E7a de
      puni=E7=E3o, ma=
s apostando em=20
      nossa sede de prazer. Por nossa iniciativa, esse novo
      hipnotizador pe=
netra=20
      em nosso pensamento e ali enxerta id=E9ias que n=E3o s=E3o
      nossas. Pa=
ra melhor=20
      nos subjugar, nos escravizar e nos domesticar. <IMG alt=3D""
      height=
=3D10=20
      src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/fim.gif" width=3D10>=20
      <P>Leia mais sobre o tema, nesta mesma edi=E7=E3o:=20
      <UL><FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/aberto/0005/01.htm">Um mu=
ndo=20
        norte-americano</A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/03.htm">A no=
va=20
        b=EDblia de Tio Sam</A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/04.htm">A=20
        resist=EDvel ascens=E3o de Ronald McDonald</A> <FONT
        color=3D#0033c=
c>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/05.htm">O=20
        imperialismo da virtude</A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/06.htm">Fasc=
inantes=20
        <I>business schools</I></A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/07.htm">A pa=
lavra=20
        sup=E9rflua</A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A=20
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/08.htm">Filo-american
        os =
=E0 beira=20
        de um ataque de nervos</A> <FONT color=3D#0033cc>
        <LI></FONT><A
        href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/09.htm">A l=
=EDngua=20
        "dolarizada"</A> </LI></UL> <BR><IMG alt=3D""
        height=3D2=20
      src=3D"http://diplo.com.br/img/linha.gif" width=3D150>=20
      <P><FONT color=3D#cc0000 face=3Darial size=3D-1>Traduzido por
      J=F4 Am=
ado.=20
      <P><A name=3Dautor> <BR>* Editor do <I>Le Monde
      Diplomatique</I>=
.=20
       <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#inicio">[voltar]
      </A>=
=20
      <P><A name=3Dnota1><B>1</B>   <I>Le Nouvel Observateur</I>,
      Pari=
s, 3 de=20
      junho de 1999.  <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#Anota1">[voltar]
      </A>=
=20
      <P><A name=3Dnota2><B>2</B>   <I>Cf</I>. Peter Gowan, "Le
      r=E9gi=
me=20
      dollar-Wall Street d'h=E9g=E9monie mondiale", <I>in Actuel
      Marx</I>, =
n=BA 27,=20
      edi=E7=E3o especial consagrada a "L'h=E9g=E9monie am=E9ricaine",
      data=
da do primeiro=20
      semestre de 2000, ed. PUF, Paris.  <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#Anota2">[voltar]
      </A>=
=20
      <P><A name=3Dnota3><B>3</B>   Ler, de Herbert I. Schiller,
      "La F=
abrique=20
      des ma=EEtres. D=E9cervelage =E0 l'am=E9ricaine", <I>Le Monde
      Diploma=
tique</I>,=20
      agosto de 1998.  <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#Anota3">[voltar]
      </A>=
=20
      <P><A name=3Dnota4><B>4</B>   Ler, de Benjamin R. Barber,
      "Cultu=
re=20
      McWorld contre d=E9mocratie", <I>Le Monde Diplomatique</I>,
      agosto de=
 1998.=20
       <A=20
      href=3D"http://diplo.com.br/fechado/0005/02.htm#Anota4">[voltar]
      </A>=
=20
      <P></FONT></P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><BR></FONT>-----Mensagem
      Orig=
inal-----=20
<BLOCKQUOTE=20
style=3D"BORDER-LEFT: #0000ff 2px solid; MARGIN-LEFT: 5px;
MARGIN-RIGHT: 0p= x; PADDING-LEFT: 5px; PADDING-RIGHT: 0px">
  <DIV=20
  style=3D"BACKGROUND: #e4e4e4; FONT: 10pt arial; font-color:
  black"><B>De:=
</B> <A=20
  href=3D"mailto:camilloz at gold.com.br"
  title=3Dcamilloz at gold.com.br>Camillo=
zzi</A>=20
  </DIV>
  <DIV style=3D"FONT: 10pt arial"><B>Para:</B> <A=20
  href=3D"mailto:listageografia at eGroups.com"=20
  title=3Dlistageografia at eGroups.com>listageografia at eGroups.com</A>
  </DIV> <DIV style=3D"FONT: 10pt arial"><B>Enviada em:</B>
  Sexta-feira, 23 de Jun=
ho de=20
  2000 19:54</DIV>
  <DIV style=3D"FONT: 10pt arial"><B>Assunto:</B> [listageografia]
  Protecio=
nismo e=20
  minha lojinha</DIV>
  <DIV><BR></DIV>
  <DIV><FONT face=3DArial size=3D2>Para refletir:<BR>  Sou
  estudante d=
e=20
  geografia e meio ambiente e tenho um micro empresa e<BR>tenho a
  seguinte=
=20
  opini=E3o:<BR>  Nas turbul=EAncias passadas da economia
  brasileira (=
 crise da=20
  Asia e depois<BR>da Russia), tinha uma opini=E3o extremamaente=20
  Neo-liberalista,mas hoje come=E7o<BR>a achar que esta pol=EDtica
  est=E1 s=
acrificando=20
  muito nossos irm=E3os e Los<BR>Hermanos (vizinhos da America
  Latina).<BR>=
 =20
  O neo-liberalismo dos pa=EDses desenvolvidos, est=E1 se mostrando
  traidor=
=20
  com<BR>nossas privatiza=E7=F5es com o chamado "Protecionismo".Ou
  seja n=
=F3s=20
  Devemos<BR>comprar deles e eles n=E0o compram de n=F3s , protegendo
  seu m=
ercado=20
  interno ou<BR>melhor enriquecendo seu mercado interno muito mais.Ai
  que e=
ntro=20
  com minha<BR>pequena loja:<BR>- O que =E9 que eu tenho haver com
  isso? N=
=E3o =E9=20
  nenhum Americano ou Europeu que<BR>vai vir aqui comprar na minha=20
  loja.<BR> Nosso  povo est=E1 sendo sacrificado , o rico
  fica ma=
is rico=20
  especulando e o<BR>meio ambiente continua a ser degradado sob =E0s
  ben=E7=
=E3os dos=20
  Estados Unidos e<BR>os loucos pol=EDticos do sul do pa=EDs com seus
  "inte=
resses"=20
  na Amaz=F5nia.<BR> Outro assunto
  interessante:<BR> Recentimente=
 vi um=20
  fato chocante de um prefeito da cidade de Divin=F3polis/MG<BR>, onde
  um r=
apaz=20
  ,gar=E7on, que fora morto por n=E3o se sabe quem , acusaram
  3<BR>medigos =
pr=F3ximos=20
  a esse assainato .Logo , sofreram retalia=E7=F5es por
  parte<BR>daquela ci=
dade onde=20
  sem julgamento quiseram linchar os mendigos.<BR>  O Prefeito
  se=20 manifestou a favor dessa sociedade , severamente dizendo
  que<BR>tem que=20 "acabar" com os mendigos da cidade , tira-los
  de<BR>Divin=F3polis.Incenti=
vando a=20
  popula=E7=E3o a trata-los no mesmo sentido.<BR>  Essa
  reportagem , q=
ue fora=20
  exibida na Tv, foi at=E9 mesma criticada pelo<BR>pr=F3prio
  rep=F3rter diz=
endo que=20
  "Ora , essa =E9 uma quest=E0o a ser tratada de<BR>forma racional ,
  como u=
m=20
  problema social".<BR>  A Dial=E9tica por=E9m , nesta cidade ,
  est=E1=
 em que,=20
  sendo a capital mineira da<BR>moda , tem que manter as
  apar=EAncias.<BR>&=
nbsp;=20
  Est=E1 na hora , acredito, de parar com essa id=E9ia econ=F4mica e
  ter=20 uma<BR>pol=EDtica mais humana ,segurar o que =E9 nosso , pois
  acredito qu=
e a=20
  aventura<BR>das privatiza=E7=F5es n=E3o deram certo , caiu mais de
  50% de=
 meus=20
  clientes . E<BR>ainda fico vendo os Pa=EDses do Norte ficando cada
  vez ma=
is=20
  ricos e quando tem<BR>crise nos Estados Unidos =E9 porque tem muito
  dinhe=
iro=20
  rolando por l=E1 . Que<BR>dial=E9tica mais absurda!!!!<BR> 
  Vamos re=
alizar=20
  plebiscitos antes das pr=F3ximas elei=E7=F5es , discutindo
  nossa<BR>sober=
ania e=20
  nossos recursos naturais . Em falar em elei=E7=F5es , alguem j=E1
  viu<BR>=
o=20
  document=E1rio da BBC de Londres : "Al=E9m do Cidad=E3o Kane"=20
  ,<BR>Camillozzi.<BR><BR></FONT></DIV><TT>Para enviar mensagens para
  toda =
lista,=20
  escreva para:   listageografia at eGroups.com<BR>Para
  informa=E7=
=F5es=20
  "administrativas"-sair, mudar de endere=E7o, etc: =20
  pazera at zaz.com.br<BR>Arquivo autom=E1tico da lista (ordem
  cronol=F3gica):=
 <A=20
  href=3D"http://br.egroups.com/group/listageografia">http://br.egroup
  s.com=
/group/listageografia</A><BR>As=20
  principais mensagens est=E3o catalogadas por assunto em <A=20
  href=3D"http://www.cnet.com.br/geografia">http://www.cnet.com.br/geo
  grafi=
a</A><BR></TT><BR></BLOCKQUOTE>
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<tt>
Para enviar mensagens para toda lista, escreva para:  
listageogr= afia at eGroups.com<BR> Para informa=E7=F5es
"administrativas"-sair, mudar de endere=E7o,=
 etc:  pazera at zaz.com.br<BR>
Arquivo autom=E1tico da lista (ordem cronol=F3gica): <a
href=3D"http://br.e=
groups.com/group/listageografia">http://br.egroups.com/group/listageog
rafia= </a><BR> As principais mensagens est=E3o catalogadas por
assunto em <a href=3D"http:=
//www.cnet.com.br/geografia">http://www.cnet.com.br/geografia</a><BR>
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- ------=_NextPart_000_002D_01BFDDCF.AF03E4E0--

- ------- End of forwarded message -------



Néstor Miguel Gorojovsky
gorojovsky at inea.com.ar

------------------------------

End of marxism-digest V1 #2328
******************************



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