Peru

Charles Brown CharlesB at CNCL.ci.detroit.mi.us
Fri Apr 27 09:19:32 MDT 2001



Thursday April 26 2:16 PM ET
Peru Site Birthplace of Civilization in Americas

By Will Dunham

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - At the same time as ancient Egyptians were building
their pyramids, people along the Peruvian coast were erecting massive stone
structures in the first major city in the Americas 4,600 years ago,
archeologists said on Thursday.

A husband-and-wife team from Illinois and a colleague in Lima say Caral,
located in the Supe River valley of central Peru, may represent the birthplace
of civilization in the Americas. The site was first discovered in 1905 but
remained unexplored. Its significance was unknown until new radiocarbon dating
revealed its stunning antiquity.

The researchers found the site dated back to 2627 BC. That meant the emergence
of urban life and monumental architecture in the New World took place nearly
800 years earlier than experts previously had thought.

Nestled on a parched desert terrace above a green valley floor, Caral is
dominated by a central zone with six large platform mounds built from quarried
stone and river cobbles set around a huge public plaza area. The largest
structure soars 60 feet high and measures 450 feet by 500 feet at the base.

``I think this is really cool stuff. This is a wonderful site, one of the most
exciting things I can think of,'' said Jonathan Haas of the Field Museum in
Chicago.

Haas, his wife Winifred Creamer of Northern Illinois University, and Ruth Shady
Solis of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima studied the site.
The findings appear in the journal Science.

One Of The Great Ancient Civilizations

Caral was flourishing at the same time as the pyramids were going up in Old
Kingdom Egypt and early complex civilizations were percolating in Mesopotamia,
China and perhaps India.

``You probably had some of the biggest structures in the world outside of Egypt
in the Supe valley,'' Haas said.

The researchers used radiocarbon dating to determine the ages of reed fibers
from woven bags found at Caral that workers had used to haul stones for the
buildings and actually left them inside the enormous structures. Because the
reeds live for only one year, the dates were extremely specific.

Caral predated by thousands of years some of the great New World civilizations
-- the Incas in the 15th century AD in Peru, the Mayans in the first millennium
AD in Central America and the Aztecs in the 15th century AD in Mexico.

Caral is located 120 miles north of Lima 14 miles inland from the Pacific
Ocean. ``The real irony is that the peak of civilization in this area happened
before 2000 BC. Nothing much has happened in this valley since,'' Creamer said.

``A Big Gorilla''

Other villages in Peru were occupied before 2600 BC. Some featured small-scale
public buildings. But all of the sites in the Americas occupied in the third
millennium BC are dwarfed by the 200-acre size of Caral and its monuments.

``At 2600 BC, you have Caral dominating the landscape like a big gorilla,''
Haas said.

The site, still only partially excavated, and others in the Supe valley point
to a remarkably advanced civilization for the time period, despite the fact
that pottery had not yet been developed and no grains were grown for food.

All six major structures at Caral were built in just one or two phases,
pointing to the existence of complex planning, centralized decision-making and
the use of large numbers of workers. The structures were crowned by ceremonial
buildings that may have served as symbols of centralized religion.

Caral also boasts eight sectors of modest homes and grand stone-walled
residences. The varied styles and quality of Caral's housing point to a richly
stratified society, the researchers said. Three sunken circular plazas at the
site testify to the emergence of a well-organized religion with open, public
ceremonies, the researchers added.

How many people lived there is a mystery. ``Whether we're talking about 1,000,
10,000 or 50,000, I honestly don't know,'' Haas said, but the scale of the
structures suggests ``there were a heck of a lot of people involved in building
them.''






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