Forwarded from Sid Chatterjee (Marx & Engels Natural Science Notebooks)

Louis Proyect lnp3 at
Tue Feb 6 15:31:42 MST 2001

Dear Louis and Charles,

Attached is the full paper by Ghosh and Baksi (in MS Word format) on Marx
and Engels' natural science notebooks. This paper was presented at the
meeting of the Indian Historical Association in Calcutta in January, 2001.
What I had sent to you earlier was merely the abstract of this paper.
Please spread the word and the paper. Thanks and. regards.



The Natural Science Note-Books Of Marx And Engels: Middle Of 1877 – Early 1883

Somnath Ghosh (AM-18210) and Pradip Baksi

It is customary to associate the names of Marx and Engels with the
emergence of scientific socialism in the 19thcentury Europe. Students of
socialist literature also associate the name of Engels with the study of
natural sciences of the last century, from within the socialist movement.
However, the natural science studies of Karl Marx remain relatively
unknown. The present communication announces the publication of the 31st
Volume of Section IV of the MEGA (Marx-Engels-Gesammtausgabe; Complete
Works of Marx-Engels)1, on the 16th of December, 1999.2 This volume
contains Marx’s notes and excerpts on Inorganic and Organic Chemistry and
Electricity. Together with Engels’ excerpts and notes on parts of Physics
and Ecology, related to his Dialectics of Nature . The present volume is of
interest to the students of history of the 19th century on many counts : it
provides new source materials for the study of the interrelationships of
the history of natural and social sciences of that century, for
Marx-studies and Engels-studies and, through these, for the study of the
interrelationships of the sciences and the socialist movement.

Before we proceed with the contents of MEGA IV/31, a few words about the
MEGA itself are in order3. Some 27 years after the death of Marx and, 15
years after the death of Engels, in the year1910, the plan for publishing
the Complete Works of Marx and Engels, in the original languages of their
texts, was discussed for the first time, at a meeting of some prominent
Austro-Marxists, who, however, could not start the project. David
Borisovich Rjazanov (Goldendach) (1870 –1938), an émigré Russian
revolutionary intellectual, present at that meeting began to realize this
plan, with active support from Lenin and the Comintern, in the 1920’s from
Moskow, Frankfurt-am-Main and, Berlin. At that time the Marx-Engels
archives were the property of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
They permitted the Russians to photo-copy the Marx-Engels papers. Thus
began the first historical attempt to publish the MEGA. Subsequently, as
the relations between the SPD and Rjanozov’s sponsors – the Comintern--
soured, the SPD leadership cancelled the arrangement, and the fate of MEGA
was sealed. Events followed in quick succession: in Russia Rjazanov was
removed from his responsibility; in Germany the Nazis came to power in
1933; the publication of MEGA came to a halt in 19354. In the face of the
lawlessness of the Nazi regime, a large part of the SPD archives, including
the Marx-Engels papers, were taken out of Germany. Subsequently, these
papers were sold to a Dutch insurance company, which in turn gave them to
the newly established Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis
(IISG), at Amsterdam, in 1938. Some more papers were collected at Moscow,
both before and after the second world war. As of now some 2/3 of the
Marx-Engels papers are being preserved at the aforementioned institute at
Amsterdam and, about 1/3 of them are being preserved at two Russian
centres5, which grew out of the now defunct Institute of Marxism-Leninism
of Moscow.

In the 1960’s a new attempt to publish the MEGA was made by the Institutes
of Marxism-Leninism (IML) of Berlin and Moscow. The IISG, permitted the
IMLs to use the documents preserved at Amsterdam, but did not participate
in the project. This attempt is now called MEGA(2) and, the earlier attempt
is called MEGA(1). The Karl-Marx-House (KMH) of Trier in Germany also
maintained close contact with the project.

In 1989, the fast unfolding political changes in GDR and USSR created
uncertainities for the future of MEGA(2). IISG and KMH changed their
earlier stand and, agreed to participate in the project, to ensure its
further continuation. In the autumn of 1990, the
International-Marx-Engels-Stiftung (IMES; International Marx-Engels
Foundation) was established, with its office at IISG, Amsterdam, with the
sole purpose of completing the MEGA(2). By that time, 43 volumes or parts
thereof of the MEGA(2) were already published; work was in progress on 7
more volumes or parts thereof. These volumes were published by 1993. A new
editorial policy was formulated in 19926. Since 1994 the IMES is publishing
its house journal the MEGA-Studien7 .It has been decided that under the new
management, MEGA(2)will be completed in 114 volumes, grouped into the
following 4 divisions : Division I – all the works, articles and drafts,
other than those related to the Capital (32 volumes); Division II – the
Capital and the work preparatory to it (15 volumes, many containing several
parts); Division III – Correspondence(35 volumes);and Division IV –
excerpts , notes and marginalia (32 volumes). The Akademie Verlag of
Berlin8 are the current publishers of the MEGA(2).

At present 11 teams are working on the different yet-to-be-published
volumes of the MEGA(2), in Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the
Netherlands, Russia and the USA. The first volume under the new management
came out in December 19989. Two more volumes have been published in 199910.

So far, some of Marx’s excerpts and notes on Geology, Agro-Chemistry and
Soil Science have been published in MEGA IV/ 6, 8 and 9. Elsewhere, parts
of his Mathematical Manuscripts have also been published11. A vast amount
of his notes and excerpts on these disciplines and, on Physics, Technology,
Agriculture, Geology and Physiology, still remain unpublished12.

The recently published MEGA IV/31 consists of two parts : Texts and,
Text-critical Apparatus. The Text portion is subdivided into two sections.
The first section contains Marx’s excerpts and notes on Inorganic and
Organic Chemistry and, Electricity. The second section consists of Engels
excerpts and notes on parts of Physics and Ecology. The Text-Critical
Apparatus contains a general introduction; introductions to the subsections
of the texts; The inventories of variant readings, corrections and
comments, which everywhere indicate the corresponding page and line number
of the text ; name index; indexes of literature used in the apparatus; and
a subject index. The technical standards of editing and production are
veritable examples for other editors and publishers of similar works to
follow. The introductions in the apparatus portion provide valuable
historical data related to the topics of the texts; these may help the
reader situate the texts in the history of the corresponding disciplines
and, appreciate the specificity of the interests shown by Marx and Engels
in the study of these sciences.

Marx’s excerpts and notes on Chemistry, pertaining to the period 1877
–1883, are distributed in 6 different notebooks. They appear in this volume
as :

Serial No.      Title                                   Marx’s Chemistry Notebook No.
1.              On the Atomic Theory                                    [1]
2.              Tabular Summaries of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry    [2]
3.              Tables of Chemistry                                     [3]
4.              Tables of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry               [4]
5.              Tables of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry               [5]
6.              Formulae of Organic Chemistry                           [6]

For these excerpts Marx used some earlier and contemporary literature on
Chemistry, as well as some literature of the related sciences, like
Physics, Geology and Physiology. The sources used by him are :

1. Lothar Mayer, Die Modernen Theorien der Chemie und ihre Bedeutung fur
die Chemische Statik. 2., umgearb. und sehr verm. Aufl. ( The Modern
Theories of Chemistry and their Significance for Chemical Statics. 2nd
revised and largely augmented ed.) . Breslau 1872.

2. Henry Enfield Roscoe, Kurzes Lehrbuch der Chemie nach den neuesten
Ansichten der Wissenschaft .Dt.Ausg. , unter Mitw. des Verf. Bearb. von
Carl Schorlemmer. 4., nach den neuesten Forschungen verm. und Verb. Aufl. (
A Concise Textbook of Chemistry in the light of the Latest ideas of that
Science). German ed. In collaboration with Carl Schorlemmer as author and
editor. 4th ed. , revised and improved in the light of latest research ).
Braunschweig 1873.

3. Carl Schorlemmer, Lehrbuch der Kohlenstoffverbindungen oder der
organischen Chemie. 2. Verb. Aufl. (A Textbook of Carbon Compounds or of
the Organic Chemistry. 2nd revised ed.) Braunschweig 1874.

4. Henry Enfield Roscoe, Carl Schorlemmer, Ausfurliches Lehrbuch der Chemie
(A Comprehensive Textbook of Chemistry ) . Bd.1 (vol . 1). Braunschweig
1877. Bd.2 (Vol.2) . Braunschweig 1879.

5. Benjamin Witzschel, Die Physik fasslich dargestellt nach ihrem neuesten
Standpunkte (Physics –Comprehensively interpreted according to its latest
standpoints). 2. Ausg. (2nd ed.). Leipzig 1858.

6. Wilhelm Friedrich Kuhne, Lehrbuch der phygiologischen Chemie ( A
Textbook of Physiological Chemistry) . Leipzig 1868.

7. Ludimarr Hermann, Grundriss der Physiologie des Menschen ( Foundations
of Human Physiology) . 5., verm. und verb. Aufl. (5th augmented and revised
ed. ). Berlin 1874.

8. Johannes Ranke, Grundzuge der Physiologie des Menschen mit Rucksicht auf
die Gesundheits -pflege . 3.,umgearb. Aufl. ( Essentials of Human
Physiology, taking Health Care into Consideration ). 3rd. updated ed.
Leipzig 1875.

9. Joseph Beete Jukes , The Student’s Manual of Geology. 3rd. ed. Edinburgh
1872 The selection of sources mirrors Marx’s interest in Inorganic,
Organic, Physical ,Physiological and Geological Chemistry. As a rule Marx
worked with many sources on a single topic.

The excerpts titled ‘ On the Atomic Theory’ – his notebook [1] – contain a
discussion of the : (1) atomistic principle as propounded by John Dalton
(1766–1844), (2) related stoichiometric laws of chemical combination of
elements and, (3) determination of atomic and molecular weights of elements
and compounds – wherein the doctrine of Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850)
and, the principle of Lorenzo Romano Amadeo Carlo comte di Quaregna e
Ceretto Avogadro (1776 -1856), together with the follow up corollaries like
the relation between ‘vapour density’ and ‘molecular weight’, have been
discussed with various illustrations.

The repeatedly excerpted tables of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry – in his
notebooks [2] – [6]-- contain tables for Non-metals and Metals ; the
Periodic System of Julius Lothar Meyer (1830-1895); discussion of
Quantitative Valency, Oxides, Hydroxides, Acids and Salts; tables of the
various groups of Organic compounds, like the Paraffins, Carbohydrates,
Aromatic Compounds, alkaloids, Uric Acid and related substances, Carbonyl
and Sulfocarbonyl Compounds, Etheric and Anhydride substances, Ammonia and
its derivatives, Organic Acids etc.

Marx’s chemistry-excerpts are followed by his excerpts from : Edouard
Hospitalier, La physique moderne. Les principales applications de
l’electricite 2.ed. ( Modern Physics.The Principal Applications of
Electricity . 2nd ed. ) Paris 1882. It contains discussions on : (1) the
sources of electricity, like the ‘Vol taic Piles’ or ‘Galvanic Batteries’ ;
the physical nature of their functioning; (2) the characteristics of
current electricity – Ohm’s Law and related issues; and (3) lists the units
for measuring Electrical Current, Voltage, Resistance etc. The first
section of MEGA IV/31 comes to an end with these excerpts.

The second section of the volume contains Engels’ excerpts from :

1. William Thomson, Peter Guthrie Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosophy.
Vol.1. Oxford 1867.

2.  Carl Fraas, Klima und Pflanzenwelt in der Zeit, ein Beitrag zur
Geschichte beider . ( Climate and Plant World in Time, a contribution to
the History of Both ). Landshut 1847.

3. Hermann Helmholtz , Ueber die Erhaltung der Kraft, eine physikalische
Abhandlung, vorgetragen in der physikalschen Gescselschaft zui Berlin am
23. Juli 1847 ( On the Conservation of Force, a physical treatise,
presented at the meeting of the Physical Society at Berlin on the 23rd of
July 1847). Berlin 1847.

4.  Jean Baptiste Le Rond d’Alembert, Traite de dynamique ….. (Treatise on
Dynamics …….) Paris 1743.

5.  Gustav Wiedemann, Die Lehre vom Galvanismus und Electromagnetismus (
The Doctrine of Galvanism and Electromagnetism ). 2. neubearb. und verm.
Aufl. Bd. 1.2 (2nd revised and augmented ed. Vol.1.2 ). Braunschweig 1874.

6.  A note on Heat.

7.  A note on the Units of Measuring Electricity.

Engels made use of these excerpts and notes in several articles of the
Dialectics of Nature13 -- titled ‘The Measure of Motion --Work’, ‘ Tidal
Friction. Kant and Thomson - Tait’. ‘ The Share of Labour in the Apes
becoming Human Beings’ ( Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen’
: usually rendered in English as ‘The Part Played by Labour in Transition
from Ape to Man’), ‘Electricity’, and ‘Heat’.

In view of the fact that Engels’ study of the natural sciences has received
the attention of interested scholars for quite some time14, in the
remaining part of the present paper we shall concentrate on Marx’s natural
science studies.

Marx’s interest in Chemistry coincides with the period of his intense
preoccupation with political economy. Since the 1850s he noticed that there
are connections among : ground rent, soil fertility, use of fertilizers in
agriculture, plant nutrients and, changes in the science of Chemistry15. He
studied some of the works of James Finlay Weir Jhonston (1796 –1855)16 ,
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (1803--1873) 17;

Attended the lectures on modern chemistry delivered by the Director of
Royal College of Chemistry at London, August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-
!892) 18. He was also aware of some of the works of Christian Friedrich
Schonbein (1799 –1868) 19, Auguste Laurent (1807–1853) 20 , Charles
Fre/de/rick Gerhardt (1816 –1856) 21, Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817 – 1884)
22 , and , Friedrich August Kekule/ von Stardonitz (1829 –1896) 23. His
friend Carl Schorlemmer (1834–1892) – a student of Robert Wilhelm Bunsen
(1811–1899), Heinrich Will (1812–1890) and Hermann Kopp (1817–1892) –
greatly influenced his study of Chemistry.

The then developments in Chemistry were governed by the introduction of
atomic and molecular theories, the theories of structure and bonds and, the
periodic systems. Marx’s extracts and notes on Chemistry partly mirror
these developments. In the case of periodic system, it appears that Marx
was acquainted with the work of Julius Lothar Meyer (1830 –1895), but not
with that of Dimitry Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834 –1907).

Marx’s interest in electricity also dates back at least to the 1850s. In
July 1850 Marx observed that steam was going to be superseded by
electricity as the source of energy for industrial technology24 In May 1851
he discussed with Engels and Daniels the possibility of use of electricity
in agriculture 25, in the light of an article published earlier in The
Economist 26. The excerpts from Hospitalier’s book indicate a rekindling of
his interests in the progress of theoretical and practical knowledge about

MEGA IV/31, thus documents only a phase and some aspects of Marx’s
intensive pre-occupation with the natural sciences. Students of history of
science, and of socialism in the 19th century,eagerly

Await the publication of his notes and excerpts on Physics, History of
Technology, Geology, Soil Science, History of Agricultural
Plants,,Agricultural Chemistry, Physiology of Plants, of Animals and of
Human Beings, parts of Mathematics and, on the interrelationships of the
Natural Sciences and Philosophy27.

The editorial work on MEGA IV/31 began in GDR, after the publication of
MEGA I/26, in 1985. It continued within a decaying East German state, under
conditions of managerial incompetence, staff reduction, underpayment, and
political perfidy. After the unification of Germany and, take over of the

MEGA by a new management, the entire work had to be comprehensively revised
according to the stipulations prescribed in the new rules for editing (see
: n.2 above). But never mind, as they say in Persian: Der aayad, durust
aayad ( It came late, but it has been delivered well) !


We express our heartfelt thanks to Prof. Dr. Manfred Neuhaus of the
Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and, to the Akademie
Verlag of Berlin, for kindly sending us a copy of MEGA IV/31 and, the
response to it in the German press. Thanks are also due to Sri Nilay
Bhattacharya for helping us with the German texts and, to Mrs. Suparna
Ghosh for providing similar help in respect of the extracts in French. The
usual disclaimers apply everywhere.


1. Karl Marx/ Friedrich Engels : Gesamtausgabe (MEGA). Herausgegeben von
der International Marx-Engels-Stiftung. IV Abteilung : Exzerpte, Notizen,
Marginalien. Band 31 : Naturwissenschaftliche Exzerpte und Notizen Mitte
1877 bis Anfang 1883. Bearbeitet von Anneliese Griese, Friederun Fessen,
Peter Jaeckel und Gerd Pawelzig. Akademie Verlag. Berlin 1999. 1055 S. in
Zwei Halbbaender. DM 298. ISBN 3-05-03399-1.

2. Arnold Schoelzel, " Universaler " bookstall" : Zwei neue Baende der
Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe sind erschienen, Junge Welt, Berlin vom 29.
Dezember 1999.

3. For a description of the MEGA and its history see : Juergen Rojahn , "
Publishing Marx and Engels after 1989 : the fate of the Mega ,,, Critique ,
no. 30 –31 (Glasgow , 1998) pp. 196 –207 and, a Bengali tr. of the same :
Euergen Roiyahan, " 1989 Saler Par Marks-Engels-Rachanasamagra" (Tr. Pradip
Baksi ), Anustup ( Calcutta), XXXIII : Summer-Rainy Season Jt. No. 1406
(1999), pp. 40 –76.

4. See : Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels : Historisch--Kritische Gesamtausgabe.
Werke, Schriften, Briefe. Im Auftrage des Marx-Engels-Instituts Moskau
hrsg. Von D. Rjazanov bzw. V. Adoratskij, Erste Abteilung : Samtliche Werke
und Schriften mit Ausnahme des Kapital . Bd. 1-7; Dritte Abteilung:
Briefwechsel. Bd. 1-4. Frankfurt a. M. bzw. Berlin 1927 –1935 .
Sonderausgabe : Friedrich Engels : Herrn Eugen DuhringsUmwalzung der
Wissenschaft . Dialektik der Natur. 1873-1882. Sonderausgabe zum
Vierzigsten Todestage von Friedrich Engels. Moskau, Leningrad 1935.

5. Rossiiskii nezavisnyi institut sotsyal’nykh i natsional’nykh problem
(e-mail : snpi at and, Rossiskii tsentr khranenija i izucheniya
dokumentov noveischei istorii (e-mail : iisgmosofl at

6. See : Editionsrichtlinien der Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe. Berlin, 1993.

7. Contact address : Juergen Rojahn, Executive Editor, MEGA-Studien, IMES,
IISG, Cruquiusweg 31, 1019 AT Amsterdam, The Netherlands ( Phone: +
31/20/668 5866, Fax : +31/20/665 4181, e-mail : jro at

8. Contact address : Akademie Verlag, Muhlenstr. 33-34, Berlin, Germany
(Phone : +49/30/478 89355, Fax : +49/30/478 89357, e-mail :
info at

9. MEGA IV/3. Karl Marx, Exzerpte und Notizen, Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847.
1998. IX, 866p., ill. 18. DM 298. ISBN 3-05-003398-3.

10. One of these two is the topic of this paper (see n.1 above). The other
one is : MEGA IV/32. Die Bibliotheken von Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels.
Annotiertes Verzeichnis des ermittelten Bestandes. Vorauspublication.
1999.738p. DM 298. ISBN 3-05-003440–8.

11. See: Karl Marx, Mathematical Manuscripts. Ed. and Tr. Pradip Baksi.
Calcutta : Viswakos Parisad, 1994, p.404. A Bengali tr. of these MSS have
also been published in 1994, by the same house.

12. See: Pradip Baksi," Karl Marx’s Study of Science and Technology",
Nature,Society, and Thought (Minneapolis), 1996, IX, 3, pp.261-296.
Anneliese Griese, Hans Joerg Sandkuehler (Hrsg.), Karl Marx – Zwischen
Philosophie und Naturwissenschaften. Frankfurt/M etc. 1997 ( Review in :
MEGA-Studien, 1998/2,pp.107-110).

13. See: MEGA I/26. Friedrich Engels, Dialektik der Natur (1873-1882).
1985. LVI, 1,111. DM248. ISBN 3-05-003363-0.

14. At least since 1925. See : Friedrich Engels, "Dialektik und Natur"
("Dialectics and Nature"). Hrsg. David Rjazanov, in : Marx-Engels-Archiv.
Bd.2 Frankfurt/M 1927, S. 117-395. Friedrich Engels, "Natur Dialektik.
Dialektika Prirody" ("Nature Dialectics. Dialectics of Nature"), Podred. i
s Pridisloviem D. Rjazanova, Archiv K. Marksa i F. Engelsa, Km. 2. Moskva i
Leningrad, 1925, S. 2-440.See also : Bonifati Mikhailovich Kedrov, "
Polveka raboty nad tekstami i zamyslami F. Engelsa" ( " Half a century of
work on F. Engels’ texts and plans"), in : Filosofiya i
estestovoznaniya.Moscow 1974.Bengali tr. in : Marksbad O Bijnan samuher
Dwandikata.(Marxism and the Dialectics of the Sciences) Ed. and Tr.
P.Baksi, Calcutta 1986, pp.86-107 .Anneliese Griese, Gerd Pawelzig,
"Friedrich Engels’ "Dialektik der Natur" : eine vergleichende Studie zur
Editionsgeschichte" ( "Friedrich Engels’ "Dialectics of Nature" : a
comperative study of the history of its editions"), MEGA-Studien, 1995/1,

15. Marx’s letter to Adolf Cluss, 5 October 1853; Marx-Engels, Collected
Works(henceforth MECW), Moscow 1975. Vol, 39, p. 382. Marx’s letters to
Engels, 13 and 20 February 1866; MECW, Vol.42,pp. 227,232. Karl Marx,
Capital I, in MECW, 35, p.313,n.2.

16. James Finlay Weir Johnston, Catechism of agricultural chemistry and
geology.23rd ed. Edinburgh 1842. Id., Lectures on agricultural chemistry
and geology. Edinburgh 1847. Id., Elements of agricultural chemistry and
geology. 4th ed. Edinburgh 1856.

17. Justus von Liebig, Die organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf
Agrikultur und Physiologie (The Organic chemistry in its application to
agriculture and Physiology ). 4th ed. Braunschweig 1842. New ed. 1862. Id.,
Herr Doctor Emil Wolff in Hohenheim und die Agrikultur-chemie ( Dr. Emil
Wolff in Hohenheim and Agricultural chemistry ).Braunschweig 1855.

18. Out of these lectures grew : August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Einleitung in
die moderne Chemie ( Introduction to Modern Chemistry ). Braunschweig 1866.

19. Christian Friedrich Schoenbein, " Neue Beobachtungen ueber voltaische
Stroeme, erregt durch chemische Tendenzen" ( " New observations on voltaic
currents, excited through chemical tendencies in : Annalen der Physik und
Chemie. Leipzig. (Bd.43.) Reihe 2. Bd. 13. 1838. S.229-241. Id., "
Electrochemische Untersuchungen" ("Electrochemical investigations"), in:
Ibid. (Bd.56.) Reihe 2. Bd.26.1842.S.135-150. Id., "Uber die
Sauer-Wasserstoffsaule" ( " On the Acid-HydrogenColumn"), in : Ibid. (Bd.
58.) Reihe 2. Bd. 28.1843. S.361-375. Id., Beitrage zur Physikalischen
Chemie ( Contribution to Physical Chemistry ). Basel 1844.

20. Auguste Laurent, Methode de chimie ( Methods of Chemistry ).. Paris 1854.

21. Charles Frederic Gerhardt, " Recherches sur les acides organiques
anhydres" ("Researches on the organic acid anhydrides"), in : Annales de
chimie. Paris T.37. 1853. S. 285.

22. Charles Adolphe Wurtz,Lec,ons de philosophie chimique ( Lessons of
chemical philosophy). Paris 1864.

23. Friedrich August Kekule’ von Stardonitz, "Ueber die sogenannten
gepaarten Verbindungen und die Theorie der mehratomigen Radikale". (" On
the so-cslled coupled compounds and the theory of  multi-atomic radicals"),
in: Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. Heidelberg, Leipzig. Bd.104. 1857.
S.129-150. Id., "Ueber die Constitution und die Metamorphosen der
chemischen Verbindungen und uber die chemische Natur des Kohlenstoffs" ("
on the constitution and the metamorphoses of chemical compounds and on the
chemical nature of Carbon"), in : Ibid. Bd. 106. 1858. S. 129-159. Id.,
Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie oder der Chemie der Kohlenstoffverbindungen
(A Textbook of Organic Chemistry or of the Chemistry of Carbon Compounds).
3 vols. Erlangen 1861-1867.

24. See; Wilhelm Liebknecht, " Reminiscences of Marx", in : Marx and Engels
through the eyes of  their contemporaries. Moscow 1978, pp. 64-65.

25. See: MECW, 38, S. 344-45, 350-51 (Marx to Engels, 5 May 1851 and,
Engels to Marx, 9 May 1851) and, Voprosy Filosofii, No. 5, 1983 : pp. 109,
115-116 (Roland Daniels to Karl Marx, 12 April and 25 May 1851).

26. " Remarkable Discovery -- Electricity and Agriculture". The Economist,
Vol III, Nos. 17 and 18, of 26 April and 3 May 1845.

27. See: " Chronologischer und inhaltlicher Ueberblick uber die
naturwissenschaftliche Exzerpte von Karl Marx" ( " A chronological and
contentwise overview of the natural science excerpts of Karl Marx"), in:
Peter Jaeckel und Peter Krueger, " Aktualisierte Uebersicht ueber die
naturwissenschaftlichen Exzerpte von Karl Marx (1846 bis 1882)" [" An
updated survey of the natural science excerpts of Karl Marx (1846 to
1882)"], in : Griese, Sandkuhler (Hrsg), Karl Marx – Zwischen Philosophie
und Naturwissenschaften, l.c. (n.12), pp. 95-98.

Louis Proyect
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