Forwarded from the Save WBAI mailing list
lnp3 at SPAMpanix.com
Sat Jan 27 20:14:42 MST 2001
Below is an interesting article about progressive/alternative media which
addresses Pacifica issues as part of a general discussion of the role of
media, and the issue of audience size for this sort of information.
Andrea Buffa is the director of Media Alliance, and has been an active
particpant in the stuggle to save Pacifica Radio, as well as develop
grassroots journalism sources such as micro-radio and Independent Media
Published in the January/February 2001 issue of Media File (see
National Progressive Media: Who's Left?
by Andrea Buffa
When it comes to the question of why most progressive national media
outlets reach such a small percentage of their potential audience,
progressive activists are conflicted. On the one hand, we're exhilarated
when we reach large numbers -- whether it's the Independent Media Center
website getting 1.5 million hits during the protests against the World
Trade Organization, or the Chronicle running a rare cover story on an issue
we care about. On the other hand, we insist that progressive media must
hold firm to their progressive missions regardless of how large an audience
Nowhere has this conflict been sharper than in free speech activists'
struggle against the right-wing assault on the Pacifica Radio Network. For
the past several years, the Pacifica board of directors and national
management have been forcing structural and programming changes in the
network that they claim will increase audience size and diversity. Since
many of these changes have led to a tempering of Pacifica's programming,
community organizers and activists contend that the issue of audience size
is a red herring -- what Pacifica managers are really trying to do is
eviscerate the politics of the only progressive radio network in the United
States. Free speech activists call for Pacifica to pursue its mission,
rather than pursuing high audience ratings.
At other progressive media institutions, editors and producers offer their
own excuses for their small audiences: when there is no mass social justice
movement, they say, there will not be a socially conscious mass media
outlet. But those who are active in social justice movements often see a
different problem. Among ourselves, we criticize the left press -- from The
Nation to Mother Jones to the Pacifica Network News -- for being boring,
academic, homogenous, and out of touch with social justice activists.
Rarely, though, do activists or independent media producers go beyond the
mainstream measurements of audience size and financial success to evaluate
our own progressive media institutions. As we enter 2001 with apparently
growing progressive political movements -- the anti-corporate globalization
movement, the Green party, youth fighting against the prison industrial
complex -- we owe it to ourselves to grapple with the difficult question of
whether or not our national progressive media are serving the needs of our
movements and helping promote social change.
Measuring Our Effectiveness
Laura Flanders has thought a lot about this question. Flanders did media
criticism with Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting for nearly ten years. She
now hosts the only progressive talk show on AM radio at the Working Assets
radio station in Boulder, Colorado. Flanders and Working Assets are trying
to make in-roads in a medium that is dominated by the radical right. "My
listeners were listening to Rush Limbaugh," Flanders says. "[Working in
commercial AM radio] does bring me smack up against the failures of the
alternative media movement. I put on what I think is a great show, and
there are no calls."
By traditional measures of success, such as audience size and financial
support, Flanders' show isn't doing well. (Nor are most national
alternative media institutions, which not only reach small numbers of
people but also consistently lose money.) But she measures her
effectiveness in other ways. She considers listener response, call-ins,
emails, the level of listener participation in activism, and whether or not
her show has raised important issues. "I think I do a good job raising
social justice issues. I just don't know if I raise them in a way that AM
talk radio listeners can hear."
Flanders says that progressives should realize that it takes years to
develop a large audience for a radio show, and that audience size should be
but one factor in measuring effectiveness. "Apple gave itself seven tries
at a successful computer before they got the iMac and G4," she points out.
For Peggy Law, executive director of the International Media Project (IMP),
one of the most important measures of success for the IMP radio show,
Making Contact, is the activists' ability to use it in their outreach and
education efforts. For example, the National Housing Law Project just
bought 15 copies of a recent Making Contact show on housing, which they
will use in presentations to organizations, activists, and students all
over the country.
With a skeleton staff of four paid employees and numerous volunteers, IMP
has succeeded in six short years in convincing more than 160 radio stations
to air Making Contact weekly. They have also produced numerous special
shows, especially around the large protests that were organized this year
in Seattle and elsewhere. "One of the reasons we're pretty exhausted right
now is because we want to be as responsive as we can be to movement
changes, so we were in Seattle, in DC in April, and did unconventional
coverage at both conventions, even though we didn't even have a travel
budget," Law says. And in response to demands from Pacifica Radio
listeners, IMP will soon pilot a new progressive national daily news show
to replace the Pacifica Network News.
"The tension between content and audience has to be addressed constantly.
Pacifica has lost track of the mission," says Law. She acknowledges the
value of getting Making Contact on as many radio stations as possible. "The
number of stations is important, but also the diversity of stations. We
like it when we have a station that has a huge listening audience, but
we're equally excited when we get an Alaskan fishing village or stations
that are not in the group of stations which would normally carry Pacifica
programming. One of our goals is to reach beyond the circle of communities
who are already looking for this." At the same time, she is not willing to
water down the content of the show to appeal to more mainstream stations.
Flanders and Law see their shows as part of the social justice movement
and, therefore, measure their effectiveness very much by whether or not
they are serving social justice activists. By contrast, Katrina vanden
Heuvel, who's worked on and off at The Nation for the last 20 years and now
holds its top editorial position, says that The Nation "doesn't pretend to
be a social change agent; first and foremost, we are an independent
"What The Nation can do," vanden Heuvel says, "is provide progressives with
information and a context within which to consider important ideas." Vanden
Heuvel describes the readers of The Nation (circulation 100,000) as
activists, academics, and journalists, as well as people outside of urban
areas who consider it their lifeline to the progressive community. She
believes The Nation has been most effective when a story it covers pushes
leaders in Congress, the labor movement, and elsewhere to act on issues
they would not have acted on. A good investigative story can provoke a
Congressional investigation of U.S. military complicity with paramilitary
groups in East Timor. Or, consistent coverage of the living wage issue can
put the term into the general discourse and have it accepted by the labor
Not that vanden Heuvel ignores the role of social justice activists. The
street is not the only place where social change happens, she contends.
There is a national battle of ideas, and progressives need a publication
that can insert itself into that battle.
On the subject of how national progressive media outlets could improve
their effectiveness, vanden Heuvel looks more to external structural
barriers than to the failings of the left press for an explanation. She
believes that there are millions of progressives in the United States, "but
TV -- let's be honest -- is the media which millions of Americans get their
news from." The left has no television station nor does it have a
"We need daily outlets for the progressive media," says Amy Goodman,
co-host of Pacifica Radio's popular national show, Democracy Now. The left
has neither a daily national newspaper nor a daily wire service. Goodman
does not give credence to what she calls the "mainstream media point of
view" that the public can be divided along liberal and conservative lines,
and that liberal issues are of no interest to a larger public. Referring to
the pathetic coverage of the annual protest against the School of the
Americas, where thousands have been arrested in the last three years, she
points out that if people had known about the protests and the history of
the school, they would have cared. Military people would have been
concerned about it; journalists would have been interested in covering it.
But most people just never heard about it. "I think there's a big audience
out there. The audience doesn't share the point of view that the media puts
out," Goodman says.
Currently under pressure from Pacifica management to soften her reporting
on issues like police brutality and the death penalty, Goodman is perhaps
reluctant to critique the progressive media establishment. Other
progressive media journalists, however, have no problem articulating their
criticisms and offering opinions about the self-marginalization of
progressive media institutions.
Don Hazen is one of them. A former editor at Mother Jones, Hazen now
directs the Independent Media Institute, which puts out AlterNet, a wire
service for alternative news weeklies. What does he think about a
television station run by progressives? "To yearn for one is to operate in
the world of unreality," Hazen says. "Nobody would watch a progressive TV
channel, at least not enough people so that anybody could make any money
with it. That's why there isn't one."
Hazen believes that progressives need to think more strategically about
media, especially the role of corporate media. "In the final analysis,
change doesn't happen because of progressive media. So we progressives need
to go beyond progressive media, using a combination of grassroots
organizing, demonstrations, the Internet, paid ads, effective PR, and on
and on, and be campaign oriented," he says. Progressive media does not
identify and hone in on the audience that is most essential for bringing
about change, he says. It may mean making use of mainstream media, but he
fears that many progressives, including leaders of progressive media
institutions, would rather marginalize themselves than chance being
"corrupted" by their participation in the corporate media.
In Flanders' opinion, progressive media outlets tend to talk down to people
and don't collaborate effectively with each other. When some of Flanders'
colleagues interviewed some regular listeners of RadioForChange --
employees at a Toyota body shop -- they were shocked to learn that these
people would never consider calling in to the show because they didn't
think they were smart enough. "How do we sustain our listeners and sustain
our communities and at the same time have it not be a closed conversation?
Are we having our conversation in a way that excludes other people?"
Flanders asks. Vanden Heuvel -- whose publication The Nation is often
criticized by activists as being too academic -- is also concerned about
opening up the conversation. "If corporate power is the most important
issue of our time, we need to find a language that describes corporate
power that is more accessible to others," she says. Peggy Law's own
observation is that "many of us [in the media of the Left] are better at
critiquing and resisting than we are at building something helpful. This
On the issue of collaboration, vanden Heuvel agrees with Flanders. "I do
think that progressives are too reluctant to act together until they agree
on everything," she says. This is particularly troubling, Flanders
believes, because the result is multiple progressive media institutions
with almost identical mission statements and projects, duplicating each
others' efforts -- something cash-strapped organizations simply cannot
afford. Worse still, independent media outlets often pit themselves against
each other because they are competing for limited funding, says Law. Of
course, this leads to even less collaboration.
Flanders also criticizes what some call the "unbearable Whiteness of the
national progressive media." "Movements of the last 20 years have said that
racism, sexism, and homophobia are not just details or side issues --
they're central issues. And our alternative press hasn't taken these on,"
she says. Hazen agrees that the audience for progressive media is
predominantly White and middle-aged, but he sees it more as a matter of
media matching the culture of a group. "Intellectual magazines don't cut it
for most young people," he says. "Hip hop, the Internet, zines, slams,
Napster, are all more appropriate because they are part of their culture,
just like The Nation, ITT [In These Times], et al, are part of ours."
Where do we go from here?
If Hazen is right, and the popularity of the left press is limited to the
generation that is now in its middle age, the future of traditional
progressive media institutions looks bleak. Fortunately, the popularity of
Internet media outlets, particularly the IMC website, give reason for hope
and a glimpse of the possible next phase of development for progressive media.
When he hears talk of the decline and failure of the left press, Don Rojas
of The Black World Today website is quick to point out that in the last
year, progressive websites have experienced a boom. "We should not overlook
the fact that usage of progressive websites and progressive new media in
general is on the increase. I expect this will continue," Rojas says. His
website is a case in point. Launched in July 1996, The Black World Today
(www.tbwt.com), has had more than four million visitors and experiences a
five to ten percent increase in traffic every month. Rojas says that web
users -- especially young people -- are very receptive to progressive
messages. Like Working Assets' RadioForChange, The Black World Today is a
commercial venture -- albeit one that has yet to turn a profit.
Most progressives would agree that the IMC phenomenon is the most exciting
development in national progressive media of the last 15 years. The large
audience for the IMC sites is paralleled by the enthusiasm of independent
media makers wanting to work for the IMC for free. "We had no idea that 450
people would come and sign up [as IMC journalists] to participate in
Seattle," says Sheri Herndon, a Seattle-based radio journalist and
activist. "In DC [at the protest against the IMF and World Bank], 800
people signed up; in LA [at the Democratic convention], 1400 people showed
up . . . during the week of the presidential election, we got over 100,000
hits per day at the main site."
Herndon believes that the IMCs are effective, because "movement" activists
see them as something they can use. "It's not that we're exporting the IMC.
It's that activists are requesting an IMC. The model fills a void," says
Herndon. It doesn't cost much to create an IMC, and the self-publishing
software already exists and can be replicated for any city. The software
allows activists to create their own media rather than having their ideas
filtered through a journalist, even if that journalist works for the
As alluring as it is to romanticize the IMC as the perfect progressive
media institution for the 21st century, it is an institution that is still
going through the growing pains that many established national left media
outlets went through decades ago. The decision- making structure at the IMC
is still evolving, with each individual IMC developing its own structure,
and larger issues for the IMC network being discussed on IMC email lists.
Some people would call it process hell. Herndon counters that the "constant
collective reflection" shows a dedication of IMC participants to democracy
and access that is revolutionary.
More problematic is the fact that the IMC network is run entirely by
volunteers, some of whom are working 60 hour weeks without pay to keep this
miraculous media phenomenon on track. "Some people feel the IMCs should
remain a volunteer organization. Those people don't tend to be the ones who
are working full time on the IMC," Herndon says. There is also the question
of how the IMC will sustain itself in the months ahead without a major
activist mobilization effort to cover. But Herndon believes that the IMC
has already found a niche outside of major events -- as a wire service for
news about activism.
Aside from the IMC website and several Internet portals for progressive
information (Common Dreams, for example), the only other national daily
source of news with a progressive slant is Democracy Now. It is also the
most often mentioned example of successful progressive media. "I think
Democracy Now is a model of a kind of journalism that inspires and
motivates people," Flanders says. Goodman, her co-host Juan Gonzalez, and
the show's producers seem to have their fingers firmly on the pulse of the
What is it about Democracy Now that makes it so effective? Although Goodman
is one of the harshest critics of corporate media around, she has picked up
certain lessons from the mainstream press. The main one is that issues have
to be covered regularly and persistently. Otherwise, they don't sink in,
Goodman says. She gives the example of her coverage of Leonard Peltier's
clemency hearing in November 2000. "Now that Peltier's case is being
decided on, we'll talk about it every single day, like mainstream press
covers celebrities," Goodman explains. She believes that if the journalist
is unabashed, unafraid, determined to uncover the truth, and unwilling to
temper the message, and if she covers the issues over and over again, the
audience will come. Democracy Now is proof that her philosophy works.
What's next, then, for the national progressive media? Rojas of The Black
World Today is pushing for progressives to come together on an Internet
radio station that would broadcast programming 24- hours a day. Hazen also
believes that progressives should sink their resources into the Internet.
But whatever the form of the new national left media institutions, it's
clear what their goals need to be.
We must have some progressive media institutions whose charge is to keep
our growing cadre of social justice activists informed and inspired to take
to the streets to demand change. We must also have progressive media
institutions that use mainstream media methods (or spin their stories to
the mainstream press) to reach the masses of people who have yet to decide
where they stand on the important issues of our time -- not to mention the
political and economic elites who hold power in this country.
The audience has a role to play too. Hazen worries that people who read The
Nation and listen to Pacifica Radio stations like KPFA believe that the
action of consuming progressive media in and of itself constitutes
political activism. "As [Ralph] Nader points out, there are powerful
stories on the front page of the New York Times; whole issues of Time
Magazine devoted to corporate corruption. The corporate establishment
yawns. Nothing happens. . . . Articles, ads, stories without campaigns and
organizing are futile. They fall into the hole."
Progressive messages -- whether in print or on the Internet or on radio --
are not going to create social change on their own. This means that
audience members must go beyond just reading and listening; they must also
©1998-2001 Media Alliance
Marxism mailing list: http://www.marxmail.org/
More information about the Marxism