Xxxx Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx at
Fri Mar 9 10:48:07 MST 2001

by Richard Lee (Fernand Braudel Center)

mid-seventeenth century, refers to the "science of the nature, functions,
and phenomena of the human mind"; psychiatry, [psyche-iatros, healer of the
mind] from the mid-nineteenth century, generally to the "medical treatment
of diseases of the mind"; and psychoanalysis, from 1896, to
the therapeutic method originated by Freud for treating disorders of the
personality or behavior by bringing into a patient's consciousness his
unconscious conflicts and fantasies (which are attributed chiefly to the
development of the sexual instinct) through the free association of ideas,
analysis and interpretation of dreams and parapraxes,  etc., and allowing
him to relive them by transference. ... A theory of personality and
psychical life derived from this, based on concepts of the ego, id, and
super-ego, the conscious, pre-conscious, and unconscious levels of the mind,
and the repression of the sexual instinct; more widely, a branch of
psychology dealing with the unconscious (OED, XII, 766, 758, 761).

Both an academic discipline and professional activity, psychology was, up
until the latter part of the nineteenth century (David Murray, 1983, traces
it back to ancient times) bound up with philosophy as that area of the study
of man (anthropology) concerned with the mind or soul as opposed to physical
description. The conventional date for the founding of modern psychology as
a discipline is 1879, the year Wilhelm Wundt established a laboratory for
psychological experimentation at the University of Leipzig, where he held
the chair in philosophy. The laboratory become an Institut in 1882. Wundt
founded the first journal dedicated to experimental psychology,
Philosophische Studien in 1881. In light of the substance of the research,
it changed its name to Psychololgische Studien twenty years later. In 1890 a
second journal, Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane
was founded by Ebbinghaus and König as an outlet for a growing flow of
articles. "Henceforward, the core meaning of 'psychology' would be dominated
by the adjectives scientific and experimental" (Koch and Leary, 1985, 8) and
thereby was banished much of the stockpile of knowledge that had been built
up in the humanities and social sciences. But Wundt's views were anything
but fixed: in 1873-1874 (Grundzüge) he placed psychology in an intermediate
position between Natur- and Geisteswissenschaften but by 1883
(Methodenlehre) he regarded it as the basis of the Geisteswissenschaften; he
did, nonetheless, try to formulate actual laws of psychic causality.

This followed three-quarters of a century of accelerating work in Britain in
the speculative tradition (mental philosophy) as well as in Germany in the
experimental tradition (physiological psychology). The experimental approach
was slow to overcome the philosophical tradition in Great Britain. A lab was
not organized at Cambridge until 1897. Sully founded the British
Psychological Society in 1901.

The natural science connection was pursued and expounded by Théodule Armand
Ribod (with his book German Psychology To-day, 1879) and his followers,
although his Revue philosophique was open to both psychologists and
philosophers. Appointed to the first professorship of experimental
psychology in France at the Collège de France in 1888, he stressed the
method of "true science", contrasted the "metaphysical tendencies" of the
old psychology with the positive spirit of the new and placed "empirical
psychology" as a field by itself beside physics, chemistry, and physiology.
In 1894 Alfred Binet founded L'Année psychologique.

The most important German laboratories were in Berlin (1886), Göttingen
(1881), and Leipzig (1879). Stern, trained in Berlin under Ebbinghaus, was a
pioneer in children's thought processes and linguistic development (one of
the first to study Helen Keller); he founded the journal Zeitschrift für
Angewandte Psychologie in 1907. Göttingen was perhaps the best equipped
lab in the world with all sorts of experimental and measurement apparatus
for work in psychophysics. The most influential, however, remained Wundt's
institute at Leipzig which not only trained numerous German psychologists
but had great impact through the work of young foreign students,
particularly Hall at Johns Hopkins. This line went on to form the discipline
both in
Germany and overseas: e.g., Motora (Japan's first professor of psychology at
Tokyo University where he founded the first experimental laboratory in Japan
in 1888), Jastrow (founded the department at Wisconsin in 1888).

Psychology was established in the United States before coming under the
influence of German scholarship: texts by Johnson (1752), Rush (1812),
Buchanan (1812), Upham (1832), are significant as are Hickok's efforts to
establish a system (in Rational Psychology, 1849, and Empirical Psychology,
1859). G. Stanley Hall received his Ph.D. from Harvard (in 1878 under
William James, the most prolific writer on psychology of this period) on a
psychological topic--a first, was appointed lecturer at Johns Hopkins in
1882 after studying with Wundt in Leipzig, then professor of psychology and
pedagogy in 1884. There he founded the first laboratory in the U.S. in 1883.
In 1887 he began the American Journal of Psychology, in 1891 the Pedagogical
Seminary (which became the Journal of Genetic Psychology), in 1904 the
Journal of Religious Psychology, and in 1915 the Journal of Applied
Psychology. After moving to Clark University he arranged two influential
conferences: the first in 1892 which gathered together the best known
Americans and during which the American Psychological Association was
founded, and the second in 1909 which featured Stern, Freud and Jung. A
sampling of others associated with this line include Cattell who founded a
lab at Pennsylvania in 1888 and Baldwin who founded the first lab in Canada
at Toronto in 1889 before becoming professor of psychology and founding the
lab at Princeton in 1893; together the two established the Psychological
Review in 1894. Stratton established the lab at Berkeley in 1899.

Act psychology and the introspective work of the Würzburg group on thought
processes led to Gestalt psychology which dates from the 1890's. Concerned
with the holistic nature of perception, this latter took off with the
Frankfurt meeting among Wertheimer, Koffka and Köhler in 1911 and had done
its major work by 1940; its journal, Psychologische Forschung was
founded in 1922 but since its reestablishment after 1945 has been known as
Psychological Research.

In 1884 William James made the first distinction between the structural
(feeling) and functional (context, truth, mental bearing) aspects of mental
facts; in 1913 Watson launched behaviorism with the argument that
consciousness was the one thing with which psychologists should not be
concerned. Behaviorism was antithetical to, and in part a reaction to
Methodologically, behaviorism rejected introspection and the concept of
consciousness to concentrate on observable behavior; substantively, it
stressed the reduction of behavior patterns to simple analyzable elements.
Comparative work on learning and animal behavior--Pavlov's conditioned
reflexes--assumed primary importance. Logical positivism and behaviorism
developed pari passu and the reconciliation of psychology and philosophy
which emerged grounded the neobehaviorism which dominated psychology from
the 1930's to the 1960's, and marked its Americanization.

If in 1879 "there was not a single person alive who could have been
designated 'psychologists alone'" and when the American Psychological
Association was founded in 1892 it numbered but 42 members, by 1981 it had
over fifty thousand (Koch and Leary, 1985, 21). From its inception the
American Psychological Association served as an umbrella for both
psychologists and
philosophers. The formation of the American Philosophical Association in
1901 as a splinter group is evidence of the fact that it was not only the
psychologists who fought their way out of philosophy; it was the
philosophers as well who recognized around the turn of the century that
"their goals, methods, and interests were not always coextensive with those
of psychologists"
(Toulmin and Leary, 1985, 599).

In Italy, the influence of the idealism of Croce and Gentili which disputed
any study of the psyche as science caused great difficulties under Fascism;
most chairs and labs were eliminated. The Rivista di psicologia (1905) and
the Archivio italiano di psicologia (1920-1942) continued publishing but
"experimental psychology remained isolated from clinical psychiatry" (Mora,
1975, 74).

The idea that mental illness might have a medically treatable physical basis
dates from ancient times; Hippocrates himself thought that epilepsy might
result from brain disease and it was the Roman Celsus who promoted the
punitive therapy which persisted until quite recent times. Demonology,
witchcraft, which was used to explain mental illness during the Middle Ages,
was refuted during the sixteenth century but the rise of the asylum
segregating mental patients, began in the fifteenth century. Some reform
came at the end of the eighteenth century when Pinel released patients from
their chains in France and published A Treatise on Insanity in 1801.

He segregated the different types of patient, advised against restraint
unless absolutely necessary, encouraged occupational therapy, wrote against
any form of punishment or exorcism, and favored bathing, mild purgatives,
and opium as physical treatments. He was one of the first psychiatrists to
keep careful case histories and statistics on his  patients, including a
record of cure rates (Murray, 1983, 290-91).

Similar reforms were initiated about the same time by Tuke in Britain,
Chiarugi in Italy and Rush in the United States.

The first psychiatric periodical in Italy was founded in 1843; a psychiatric
appendix to the Gazzetta medica italiana appeared in 1852 to be superseded
in 1864 by the Archivio italiano per le malattie nervose; the Società
Frenopatica Italiana was founded in 1861, the chair in psychiatry at the
University of Naples in 1863, the Società Freniatrica Italiana in 1873, and
the Rivista
sperimentale di freniatria e di medicina legale (still published today) in
1874. The journal of the scuola positiva of criminology the Archivio de
psichiatria, antropologia criminale e scienze penali was founded in 1880;
this tradition focused on the individual and stressed prevention, education
and rehabilitation and its adherents often embraced socialist ideas. They
were opposed
to the classical criminologists, most often traditional Catholics, who
emphasized punishment and deterrence (Mora, 1975, 72).
 In France, the Annales médico-psychologiques was founded in 1843.
Psychiatry entered the Dutch universities only during the second half of the
nineteenth century where it remained strongly linked to neurology--the
Netherlands Association of Psychiatrists (1870) became the Netherlands
Society of Psychiatry and Neurology in 1895.

The tribulations of George III sensitized public opinion to mental illness
in Great Britain where a series of enquiries and Acts marked slow reform
throughout the nineteenth century. The Asylum Journal began publishing in
1853, changed its name to the Journal of Mental Science and still appears as
the British Journal of Psychiatry. However, according to Howells    [t]he
formation of ... the Royal College of Psychiatrists [in 1971], was the most
significant development in psychiatry in the United Kingdom in the last 200
years. Its importance was that psychiatry released itself from the control
of the physicians of psychological medicine and thus dependence on the Royal
College of Physicians. The  formation of its own College meant that
psychiatry could now frame its own practice, control its own training,
manage its own examinations, and have a responsible voice in the affairs of
medicine. In time it will influence medical training, redress the excessive
slant towards the organic, and in turn improve recruitment into psychiatry
(1975, 200).

The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions of the
Insane was founded in 1844;(9) it became the American Medico-Psychological
Association in 1892 and finally the American Psychiatric Association in
1921. Both the German Allgemeine Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie and the
American Journal of Insanity, now the American Journal of Psychiatry,
appeared in 1844. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders began
publishing in 1874. In the United States the influence of psychoanalysis
within psychiatry in the twentieth century was even more marked than on the
continent; however, at the same time controversy within hospital practice
was engendered by the introduction of insulin or metrazol shock treatment,
electro-convulsive therapy and psychosurgery which highlight the differences
between those practitioners favoring psychological methods and those
neurologically oriented.

By late mid-century, with increasing public concern about, and pressures on,
medical practice, psychosurgery drew attention again, not only in terms of
its continuation  rather than demise, but with anxiety over its potential
abuse for political and social controls. Surgery for control over violence
and aggression in patients came under attack in an effort to fend off
possible undesirable control and limitation of an individual's freedom, just
as the issue of involuntary hospitalization and treatment without consent
grew to be a major issue in hospital practice (Schneck, 1975, 461).

Eventually, with the widespread introduction of chemotherapeutic techniques,
the application of surgical procedures diminished. Within psychiatry power
struggles (special interests) have been key to, for instance, "the Soviet
prostitution of psychiatry to political ends, the endorsement of behavior
therapy, the bizarre reclassification of homosexuality as a 'sexual
orientation disturbance,' and the determined effort to exclude long-term
analysis from national health insurance" (Fine, 1990, 560).

There is an American Academy of Psychiatry and Law--psychologists founded a
similar organization in 1968.

Sigmund Freud began his self-analysis in 1895 and dominated the first period
of the psychoanalytic tradition. He began meetings of the Vienna
Psychoanalytic Society in his apartment in 1902 with four others, but his
first public lectures on psychoanalysis (which he always termed a system of
psychology, psychology plus philosophy according to Fine (1990, 648)) were
delivered at Clark University in the U.S. in 1909, not in Vienna where he
was a professor, of neurology. He founded the International Psychoanalytic
Association in 1910 (opposed by the members of the VPS), with Jung as
President, to further his science of psychoanalysis both as pure discipline
and as medical application. The Zentralblatt für Aerztliche Psychoanalyse
edited by Adler and Stekel was its official journal. Imago was founded by
Freud in 1911 and continued after 1939 as American Imago. It was initially
edited by Hans Sachs and Otto Rank who did the first consistent work on art
from a psychoanalytic perspective. In 1913 they published The Significance
of Psychoanalysis for the Social Sciences. The International Journal of
Psychoanalysis appeared in 1920 (founded by Jones) and the Psychoanalytic
Quarterly began in 1932. Jung, Adler and Stekel were gone by 1913 when Freud
founded a new journal, the Internationale Zeitschrift für Aerztliche
Psychoanalyse. Such splits and defections have abounded; when Brill formed
the New York Psychoanalytical Society in 1911, Jones founded the American
Psychoanalytic Association in opposition. The coteries were small; during
1911-12 only 34 members appeared on the roll of the VPS and only 62 attended
the IPA meeting of 1920. The Netherlands Society of Psychoanalysis was
founded in 1917. New societies were founded in Switzerland in 1919, Dresden,
Leipzig, and Munich in 1921, Kazan in 1923, the Berlin Clinic in 1920
(initiating low-cost therapy), the Vienna Clinic in 1922, and the Italian
Society in 1932. The now ubiquitous tripartite training system of personal
analysis, didactic instruction, and control analysis was developed by Max
Eitingon at his Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute during the 1920's.

Freud had long been convinced of the value of psychoanalysis to the "normal"
individual, but it remained a "pariah", according to Eitingon, in the
scientific community (including psychology, neurology, and psychiatry) until
about 1940. On the other hand, many psychologists consulted analysts and
honestly reported their experiences in a 1940 Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology symposium.

The idea of psychoanalysis as a social movement took off in the 1930's.
However, the rise of clinical psychology after 1945 was a direct result of
the war and the lack of trained analysts. It permitted the introduction of
psychoanalytic concepts without the name and thereupon the rise of
psychology was spectacular. Membership in the American Psychological
increased eleven-fold between 1945 and 1977.

The 1930's saw a the migration of many distinguished European psychoanalysts
to the United States; in 1930 Franz Alexander began working in Chicago where
he occupied the first university chair in psychoanalysis and founded the
Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis. Here the interest was in psychosomatic
disorders; Alexander with others founded Psychosomatic Medicine in 1939.

By 1938 when the Americans (effectively seceding) demanded "that the
International Association should cease to exist as an administrative body
and should resolve itself into a congress for scientific purposes only"
(Fine, 1990, 90), they were already the dominant group. From its inception,
and until the 1980's, the American Psychoanalytic Association was the only
organization which did not admit non-medical practitioners but since this
time lay analysis and non-medical groups with the same curriculum, and
conflicts, have proliferated and gained legal status in the U.S.
Politically, in the Soviet Union psychoanalysis was declared inconsistent
with Marxism and in the West, a    period of flirtation with Marxism by some
analysts soon came to an end. Wilhelm Reich may be seen as the extreme
analytic deviation to the left, Jung as the extreme to
the right; both have since been completely rejected by the main body of
psychoanalysts, which remains tied to the democratic humanistic traditions
of Western culture (Fine, 1990, 113).

At the 1949 meeting of the International the Americans formed the majority;
however, by the 1980's this had fallen to 30 percent. The division between
Freudians and the splinter groups (a recurrent phenomenon) of culturalists,
who viewed the absence of "culture" as the main shortcoming in Freud's
scheme and explored the concept of the "self", led to the establishment of
the Academy of Psychoanalysis in 1956 and the reorganization of the American
Psychoanalytic Association where adherence to Freudian concepts became a
requirement for membership (Fine, 1990, 587). Originally the journal of the
Academy was Psychiatry, founded in 1938; finally it established the Journal
of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis in 1973. The Academy is allied
with the International Psychoanalytic Forum. In most respects the two groups
are much alike, differing mainly in the insistence of the Academy on the
importance of culture. The formal organizations are similar; both banned
"lay analysis" (ended by the Association in the 1980's) and "unauthorized
training" but reproduce the dissensions stemming from rosters of approved
training analysts. The Association largely repressed the findings of its own
Central Fact-Gathering Committee (active from 1952-1957), which showed the
lack of coherence of the practices of the members of the Association and the
ambiguity of the "improvement" of patients in analysis.

The Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association was begun in 1953
replacing the Bulletin of the American Psychoanalytic Association started in
1937. The important theoretical journal, The Psychoanalytic Study of the
Child began in 1945. James Strachey completed his "standard edition"
translation of Freud's works in 1974 making the opus more complete and more
widely used in English than in German.

The Deutsche Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft was reformed in 1945 but not
recognized by the International, its director having developed his own
theory. Recognition was obtained by the Deutsche Psychoanalytische
Vereinigung (1950) in 1951. In France, psychoanalysis is strongly
represented in the universities and vaunts several groups inside and outside
the International.
In India, a psychoanalytical society was founded in Calcutta in 1922 and as
a discipline psychoanalysis is integrated into departments of psychology in
the universities. Psychoanalysis is important in Latin America but has had
slow going in Japan where a group recognized by the International was formed
after 1918.

Freud was a great admirer of Darwin in his youth and at least by 1913 he had
recognized the importance of his work to the sciences (in "The Claims of
Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest"). Nevertheless, he was uncomfortable
without a physiological basis for his theories and from the beginning
psychoanalysis was accused of being unscientific. However, the
community responded that they were in effect doing the same thing scientists
were doing: observation-concept formation-explanation. But it is the social
sciences and the humanities that show the greatest influence and
achievements. Reuben Fine wrote in 1979 that, in his view, during the
preceding 30 years  psychoanalytic thought has penetrated all the sciences
that deal with mankind. In the present era we hear repeated calls for
"interdisciplinary cooperation." A hundred years ago the social sciences
were united at least for administrative purposes, under the department of
philosophy; the present Ph.D. degree is a relic of that period. All the
social sciences found their identity by separating from speculative
philosophy. Now they are in the process of finding a new identity by uniting
under the new image of mankind offered by psychoanalysis (1990, 565).

Psychohistory is now a well accepted subdiscipline and has had its own
organ, the Journal of Psychohistory, since 1972. Freud's work is directly
relevant to the problems of ethics and happiness in philosophy; anthropology
made wide use of concepts derived from psychoanalysis from the 1920's until
the frontal attack on the "culture-personality" school in the 1950's; other
instances of the importance of psychoanalysis in the social sciences are
demonstrated in the work of Parsons and the Frankfurt school in sociology,
motivation studies in economics, and personality studies in political
science. The humanities, literature and literary criticism, education, and
religion have also been influenced--very heavily in the case of literature
and criticism.

Nonetheless, acceptance of the different approaches has been uneven.
Although the Italian Psychoanalytic Society was founded in 1925, the
alignment of Fascism with Nazi anti-Semitism crippled the movement early on.
Of late, psychotherapy has been promoted through the Gruppo Milanese per lo
Sviluppo della Psicoterapia founded in the 1960's and its journal
Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane. Only during the 1960's did clinical psychology
and psychiatry begin to achieve integration in the curricula of medical
schools in Spain. Although during the entire twentieth century British
psychiatry has been biased toward neuropsychiatry, it has shown extremes of
both drug therapy and psychoanalysis. In fact, since the introduction of
drugs in the 1950's, the biological treatment of mental illness in general
has been strengthened.

Xxxx Xxxxx Xxxxxx
Ph.D Student
Department of Political Science
SUNY at Albany
Nelson A. Rockefeller College
135 Western Ave.; Milne 102
Albany, NY 12222

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