Re.: Excuse me?

Chris Brady cdbrady at
Sun Aug 4 17:17:58 MDT 2002

To further Mark’s comments:
The academy is not made up of working class professors.
The process of culling starts before birth.

But as we have focused for the moment on education, and my area of study
is history, and the history of pre-college education, I should offer a
central part of the thesis of a recent action research project
“Reloading Class in Multicultural Education”.

My study of the history of twentieth century social movements indicates
that the most activated segment of a movement for liberation from an
oppression usually is comprised mostly of those who suffer the most from
that oppression.  Movements to moderate policies and social perception
of gays came from the gay community.  African-Americans swelled the
ranks of the civil rights movement.  Women mobilized for women’s
liberation.  Chicanos struck in the fields for their union to better
their conditions.  High school US history textbooks even now mention the
Alcatraz summer and the shootout at Wounded Knee in an approach to the
recent history of North American native peoples.  The last quarter of
the twentieth century saw the introduction and increasing inclusion of
oppressed and minority groups and their stories in official curricula.
This has been the success of the multicultural movement in education.
There is still a long way to go.  But despite multiculturalism’s credo
of inclusion of race, class, gender, sexuality, language, etc., class
has been uniquely ignored.  The distinguished multiculturalist educator
and historian Ronald Takaki (A Different Mirror) warns that class has
been neglected in multicultural education: “Class is a hidden reality of
American history.  We overlook class, but class is central

As far as success at school (a problematic construct to be discussed
elsewhere), class, in  general, appears to have more effect on students’
chances now than gender or ethnicity.  A consideration of the commanding
consequence of class, coupled with the conclusion that class has been
ignored, should indicate to us a major area of needed work. 
Ah, the many dimensions of class struggle...

Here are some of the references I used in my paper that are relevant to
the above.  Please feel free to help yourself; I am not an academic with
a proprietary interest in my research.  Note "The Times Educational
Supplement" is the London Times. :

Bigelow, B. (1996). Dumb kids, smart kids, and social class. Rethinking
Schools : an urban education journal, 10(2), 12-13.

Brantlinger, E. A. (2001). Poverty, class, and disability: a historical,
social, and political perspective. Focus on Exceptional Children, 33(7),

Chitty, C. (2002). Education and social class. The Political Quarterly,
73(2), 208-210.

Cirasuolo, J. J. (2001). A sinking feeling about competition. School
Administrator, 58(4), 38-39.

Dean, C. (1998). 5,000 pupils prove social class matters. The Times
Educational Supplement (4291), 3.

Fitzgerald, T. K. (2000). The multicultural movement and its euphemisms.
Multicultural Education, 8(2), 8-14.

Ghouri, N. (1999). Race not only factor in failure. The Times
Educational Supplement (4316), 5.

Ghuman, P. A. S. (2000). Acculturation of South Asian adolescents in
Australia. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70 pt3,

Halford, J. M. (1999). A different mirror: a conversation with Ronald
Takaki. Educational Leadership, 56(7), 8-13.

Haque, Z. (2001). Class colours achievement. The Times Educational
Supplement (4415), 28.

hooks, b. (2000). Where we stand : class matters. New York: Routledge.

Leachman, M., & Sheketoff, C. (2002, May 14, 2002). New Census data show
more poor in Oregon after economic growth of 1990s: children are "big
losers" [World Wide Web Press Release]. The Oregon Center for Public
Policy. Retrieved Tuesday, May 17, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Linkon, S. L., ed. (Ed.). (1999). Teaching working class. Amherst:
University of Massachusetts Press.

Lytton, H., & Pyryt, M. (1998). Predictors of achievement in basic
skills: a Canadian effective schools study. Canadian Journal of
Education, 23 (3), 281-301.

McLaren, P., & Farahmandpur, R. (2001). Class, cultism, and
multiculturalism. Multicultural Education, 8 (3), 2-14.

Metz, M. H. (1998, April 13-17, 1998). Veiled inequalities: the hidden
effects of community social class on high school teachers' perspectives
and practices. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American
Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Plummer, G. (1998). Forget gender, class is still the real divide. The
Times Educational Supplement (4256), 21.

Rist, R. C. (2000). Student social class and teacher expectations: the
self-fulfilling prophecy in ghetto education. (Reprinted from the August
1970 issue; with the author's introduction). Harvard Educational Review,
70 (3), 257-301.

Rodriguez, G. (2002, February 10). Where the minorities rule. New York
Times, p. 6.

Romanowski, M. H. (1998). Teacher's lives and beliefs: influences that
shape the teaching of U.S. history. Mid Western Educational Researcher,
11 (2), 2-8.

Sealey, G. (2002). Beyond black and white: is racial desegregation of
schools a relic of the past? ABC News. Retrieved April 23, 2002, from
the World Wide Web:

Shepard, A., McMillan, J., & Tate, G., eds. (1998). Coming to class :
pedagogy and the social class of teachers: Boynton/Cook Pubs.

Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror : a history of multicultural
America. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Thompson, Jane. (2000). Women, class, and education. London; New York:

Thompson, Jeff, & Sheketoff, C. (2002, Tuesday, April 23, 2002). Oregon
top state for growing inequality: rich getting richer; most Oregonians
do worse or no better [World Wide Web Press Release]. The Oregon Center
for Public Policy. Retrieved May 17, 2002, from the World Wide Web:

Thrupp, M. (1999, April 19-23, 1999). The reform of low socioeconomic
schools: are school improvement researchers being realistic? Paper
presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Van Galen, J. A. (2000). Education and class. Multicultural Education, 7
(3), 2-11.

Yettick, H. (2002, May 21, 2002). Study links test scores to peers'
economic status [world wide web]. Rocky Mountain News. Retrieved May 24,
2002, from the World Wide Web:,1299,DRMN_957_1158832,00.html

(maybe as this thread develops we should change the subject line to
 "May I be excused?" ... :)

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