"Well I used to love her, but it's all over now": digest notes on Jacques Chirac (while Blair heads to Barbados)

Jurriaan Bendien bendien at tomaatnet.nl
Sun Jul 27 14:33:49 MDT 2003


1. NUCLEAR TESTS NOT UNHEALTHY

The French President, Jacques Chirac, claims that decades of controversial
nuclear tests in the South Pacific did not give Pacific Islanders cancer.
On the eve of his first trip to French Polynesia since ordering the last
round of tests in 1995, Mr Chirac told a Tahitian newspaper Les Nouvelles de
Tahiti in an interview published last Friday (25 July), that the atomic
tests, which sparked riots on the island and drew global outrage, had "no
effect on health". "There are no health consequences, either in the
short-term or long-term," he told the newspaper. He added that the IAEA
experts had concluded in 1998 that detailed radiation surveys were not
needed, but that the French government would keep monitoring radiation
levels in the area. The 1998 IAEA report claimed France's tests in the South
Pacific had left "extremely modest radiation levels", posed no threats to
people, and predicted no change in cancer incidence.

A researcher for the Association for the Veterans of Nuclear Tests however
estimated last year that the test-site workforce
(30,000-40,000 military staff worked at least temporarily at the nuclear
sites since the beginning of the tests) had a chance of developing cancer
over their lifetime which was twice as high as in France's overall
population. The Association demands that France to fund studies about the
effects of radiation exposure, and pay for doctor's visits for workers and
their families. The French government, he said, should fund studies about
the effects of radiation exposure, pay for doctor's visits for workers and
their families, and recognize the cancerous effects of exposure to
radiation.

Under the banner of "Truth and justice for the victims of Mururoa" hundreds
of former site employees and about 1000 relatives and supporters were
protesting in Papeete on Saturday, and intended to continue protests during
Chirac's visit. They were demanding compensation for staff they claim have
suffered the effects of radiation, and for families of those who died.
Arriving in Papeete, Chirac said "Without Polynesia, France would not be the
great power that it is, capable of expressing in the concert of nations an
autonomous, independent and respected position".
1. NUCLEAR TESTS NOT UNHEALTHY

The French President, Jacques Chirac, claims that decades of controversial
nuclear tests in the South Pacific did not give Pacific Islanders cancer.
On the eve of his first trip to French Polynesia since ordering the last
round of tests in 1995, Mr Chirac told a Tahitian newspaper Les Nouvelles de
Tahiti in an interview published last Friday (25 July), that the atomic
tests, which sparked riots on the island and drew global outrage, had "no
effect on health". "There are no health consequences, either in the
short-term or long-term," he told the newspaper. He added that the IAEA
experts had concluded in 1998 that detailed radiation surveys were not
needed, but that the French government would keep monitoring radiation
levels in the area. The 1998 IAEA report claimed France's tests in the South
Pacific had left "extremely modest radiation levels", posed no threats to
people, and predicted no change in cancer incidence.

A researcher for the Association for the Veterans of Nuclear Tests however
estimated last year that the test-site workforce
(30,000-40,000 military staff worked at least temporarily at the nuclear
sites since the beginning of the tests) had a chance of developing cancer
over their lifetime which was twice as high as in France's overall
population. The Association demands that France to fund studies about the
effects of radiation exposure, and pay for doctor's visits for workers and
their families. The French government, he said, should fund studies about
the effects of radiation exposure, pay for doctor's visits for workers and
their families, and recognize the cancerous effects of exposure to
radiation,

Under the banner of "Truth and justice for the victims of Mururoa" hundreds
of former site employees and about 1000 relatives and supporters were
protesting in Papeete on Saturday, and intended to continue protests during
Chirac's visit. They were demanding compensation for staff they claim have
suffered the effects of radiation, and for families of those who died.
Arriving in Papeete, Chirac said "Without Polynesia, France would not be the
great power that it is, capable of expressing in the concert of nations an
autonomous, independent and respected position".
France carried out nuclear tests for three decades until 1996 on the
uninhabited Mururoa atoll (about 750 miles southeast of Tahiti), detonating
at least 123 nuclear weapons in the volcanic rock since 1975. Another 8 were
exploded under Fangataufa Atoll, closeby.  Mr Chirac ordered the last round
of South Pacific tests in 1995, after his first presidential victory. In so
doing, Chirac broke a three-year international moratorium on nuclear
testing, causing Australia to suspend defence ties with Paris, and spearhead
an international campaign against France. But Mr Chirac said the total of
193 nuclear weapons tests done by France had no health effects, reiterating
that studies by experts at the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) had found they posed no threat.

The New Zealand Prime Minister, Helen Clark, yesterday dismissed Mr Chirac's
claim, saying: "My understanding is that the level of cancers reported would
be greater than one would expect."

2. KANAKS GET TEARGAS ON CHIRAC'S VISIT TO NEW CALEDONIA

Police used tear gas on Saturday 26 July to break up militant
pro-independence protestors in New Caledonia during Chirac's visit which
began Wednesday. Angry protestors in Kone shouted 'Chirac murderer' as
Chirac listened to a welcome speech by a pro-independence leader, Paul
Neaouytine. Tear gas canisters were fired by police to disperse the crowd,
but wind blew the gas back towards the official ceremony. New Caledonia's
mainly Kanak USTKE union decided to strike during Chirac's visit. After
Thursday's union-led rally of two-thousand people, they are aiming for a
barbecue outside the French high commission. While USTKE has a wide range a
grievances, Chirac has told 15,000 people in Noumea that he hopes France and
New Caledonia can work together hand in hand in determining the territory's
future. Chirac did not mention the 1998 Noumea accord provision on greater
autonomy, which provides for a freeze of the electorate, to ensure Kanaks
will not be outnumbered by French migrants in future votes. The clause was
not implemented,  because the constitution has not changed accordingly.

Meanwhile, CEO Scot Hand, Inco Ltd. chief of the Goro nickel mining project
in New Caledonia,  thanked Chirac at a mining conference in Kone  for "the
supportive attitude of your officials in addressing French participation in
providing financial support for the project... in spite of our earlier
disappointment, the Goro nickel project is regaining momentum." The
Toronto-based Inco Ltd. recently took an after-tax charge of $26 million
related to Goro. "I have told people around the world that Goro Nickel is
the cornerstone of Inco's future," Hand said. "It is a fundamental and
central part of our growth strategy... Nickel from Goro will serve the fast
growing markets of Asia, particularly China. We are extremely excited about
the potential of that market, but we are more excited about the potential of
Goro." Hand said Inco regretted having to suspend construction while
conducting a comprehensive review of the projected capital costs. "We were
disappointed, as were many people here in New Caledonia, but under the
circumstances it was the right thing to do. In the long run, the delay will
enable us to meet our objective of having a world-class operation."

At a separate meeting in Noumea, Mr Chirac said that New Caledonian census
questions about ethnicity were irresponsible and illegal. He said the idea
of including references to ethnic origins in an official document, is
outrageous, adding that the French republic does not recognise people based
on their ethnic origins.

3. CHIRAC ON NORTH KOREA: NO WAR, NO NUKES

Chirac emphasised in November 2002 that France continues to attach
conditions to the normalization of relations with North Korea, singling out
the weapons' issue and human rights. Human rights activists with an interest
in North Korea are well organized in France, and their campaign against
military intervention with what they see as "the most extraordinary
totalitarian dictatorship on the planet''  influences the French government.
France's lack of enthusiasm in dealing with North Korea reflects both its
desire for an independent foreign policy and domestic pressures.

At the G8 meeting in Evian, Chirac said explicitly that the G8 did not
support the use of military force against Iran and North Korea. The G-8
resolution saw weapons of mass destruction as the pre-eminent threat to
international security, and warned Iran and North Korea about acquiring
nuclear weapons.  "We have a simple position," Chirac said. "We consider all
military action which is not agreed upon by the international community, in
particular the (United Nations) Security Council, to be illegitimate and
illegal and we've naturally not changed our position." Chirac also said
whether it be the Middle East or any other area, "one can wage war alone,
but it is more difficult to make peace by one's self."

On North Korea, the G-8 statement supported Asian countries, including
China, prodding North Korea to comply with its past commitments on nuclear
non-proliferation. On Iran, Chirac said "our hope is that, through
diplomacy, we can get Iran to accept controls."

4. CHIRAC AND THE MIDDLE-EAST CONNECTION

The French-Iraqi connection started after France pulled out of NATO in 1966,
and France has been Iraq's best friend in the West.

Before the Arab-Israeli war of 1967, France was chief supplier of military
equipment to Israel. In fact, France helped Israel build its nuclear reactor
at Dimona, supplied Israel with enriched uranium, and actively helped Israel
develop nuclear weapons. But just before the Arab-Israeli War, France
however abandoned Israel and cultivated the oil-rich Arab nations more,
because De Gaulle did believe Israel could defeat the Arabs.

As French premier in 1974, Chirac consolidated France's ties with oil-rich
Iraq. Chirac called Saddam Hussein "a personal friend" after Chirac and
Hussein finalized the agreement for a French-built nuclear reactor near
Baghdad; the reactor was later bombed by Israel.

By the late 1970s France was second only to the Soviet Union as supplier of
military and civilian harware to Iraq,. The trend continued in the 1980s and
1990s, when hundreds of French firms were doing business in Iraq,  including
Alcatel, Renault, and oil exploration companies who invested an estimated
$60 billion. France strongly backed Iraq during its war against Iran with
Mirage Fighters, Super Etendard aircraft with Exocet missiles, and
sophisticated munitions.

The Gulf War of 1991 provided little more than a hiccup in French-Iraqi
relations, and French firms were earnt more than any other country from
exporting to Iraq under the oil-for-food program. By 1994, France called for
a loosening of UN sanctions and along with Russia, attempting to
short-circuit UNSCOM at every step. France campaigned for more oil sales
from Iraq. When the US and Britain demanded tough controls to ensure the
increased oil revenues would not be used to buy weaponry, the French
objected saying such controls would undermine "Iraqi sovereignty". From 1997
on, France fought to get UN sanctions lifted entirely. Under intense
pressure from France and Russia, the UN eventually loosened restrictions on
high-tech equipment, enabling Iraq to buy hardware, which the USA and UK
claimed had military applications.

5. CURRENT FRENCH FOREIGN POLICY ON NON-PROLIFERATION

France's foreign policy priorities, as stated on 23 September, 1998 at the
UN General Assembly by French foreign minister Hubert Vedrine, are nuclear
non-proliferation, reform of the UN, human rights and Francophony. France
desires reinforcing the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation
system. Vedrine said "following the nuclear tests in South Asia, of which
everyone measures the attendant risks, we must reinforce the
anti-proliferation regime and pursue the disarmament process in all its
aspects -- nuclear, conventional, chemical and biological... our first aim
should be the entry into force as speedily as possible of the Comprehensive
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty... France, with the United Kingdom, was the first
nuclear-weapon State to ratify the treaty and is the only one to have
completed the dismantlement of its testing centre." Verdine called upon all
states that have not done so, "including India and Pakistan", to adhere to
CNTBT, taking note of their announced intention "not to carry out any more
nuclear tests.... the nuclear tests in south Asia have given us a resounding
reminder that a very serious regional territorial dispute combined, rightly
or wrongly, with a sense of insecurity could pay the way for nuclear and
ballistic proliferation."

Jacques Maillard, a senior official dealing with non-proliferation, has
stated that Paris' "main concern is to promote non-proliferation by
diplomatic actions." India, Pakistan and Israel "needed to be encouraged to
become parties." to the CNTBT.  North Korea, he said, is "a country with a
suspected nuclear-weapons capability" which could "bargain" for goodies,
thus establishing "a dangerous global trend." On the Indo-Pakistan nuclear
question, Maillard said France could "not approve" of their nuclear tests;
"all nuclear states have shown much restraint, after we stopped testing";
"it is not good news to have nuclear testing by any party in the world".
France tries to maintain dialogue with India and Pakistan.

France's human rights policy and its nexus with its overall foreign policy
is clarified by Charley Causeret, another senior foreign office official.
France's view is that "no country can be projected as a US model as far as
human rights goes - France accepts that there are different forms". Paris'
stance differs, for example, from that of the Scandinavian countries which
often "tend to act like preachers". "We feel that no state is perfect; each
has to help the other in improving" its human rights record. Such an
approach "helps to get off the vicious circle which consists of presenting
resolutions at the UN Human Rights Commission condemning one country or the
other." "France's position thus represents a kind of boundary line between
countries of the North and those of the South. Hence, we want to make the UN
Commission on Human Rights a place for exchange of ideas on human rights and
to take into account implementation."

Causeret claims "Each year, Iran is presented as a country that is a
violator of human rights. Each year, the Netherlands and the UK push
resolutions against Iran. But France says that if there are resolutions, we
have also to take into account the progress made e.g. in the area of women's
rights." "It is clear that the position of Iran is not perfect. But why
should we insist on the right of women in Iran and not mention the position
of women in Saudi Arabia?" France  believes that "you cannot separate civil
and political rights from economic rights." Generally, he said, developed
countries pinpoint civil and political rights, while developing countries
point more to economic and social rights. On child prostitution, Causeret
declared that it is "not enough to point to the problem." In France's view:
"We need legislation to train social workers and magistrates. This is how we
can help countries promote human rights."

6. CHIRAC: BACKGROUND ON HIS POLITICAL CAREER

Jacques Chirac was born November 29, 1932 in Paris. He graduated from the
Institut d'Etudes politiques de Paris in 1954 and the Ecole Nationale
d'Adminstration in 1959, specialising in public administration and French
politics. He also attended a Harvard Summer School in the USA. A Catholic,
he married on March 16, 1956 and has two daughters (one of whom, Claude,
recently starred as presidential "aide d'image"", being mentioned in a
public scandal about undeclared spending by Chirac of $300,000 during
1992-1995, on 20 lavish trips). At this time, Chirac joined the army and
served in Algeria 1956-57. In 1957, he returned to France and studied at the
Ecole Nationale d'Administration, which trains high level public servants.
His career took off in 1962, when he got a job at the governmental personnel
office under de Gaulle's presidency.

By 1968, Jacques Chirac was secretary of state for social issues, in charge
of employment problems and took part in negotiations with students and
striking workers. This activity helped his promotion to Secretary of State
for economic and financial issues, over the next several years. In 1974,
after being minister for agriculture, Chirac became internal affairs
minister. When Valery Giscard d'Estaing became president in April of 1974,
Chirac became premier. The same year, he became the secretary-general of the
Gaullist Union of Democrats. Chirac resigned as premier in 1976 due to
conflicts with Giscard d'Estaing. Soon after, Chirac became president of the
Union of Democrats. Between 1977 and 1995, Chirac was also mayor of Paris.
In 1979-1980, he served as member of the European Parliament.

In 1981, Chirac lost the presidential candicacy to socialist Francois
Mitterand, but The Union for Republic and the Union for the French Democracy
joined in a coalition, and gained the majority of seats at the National
Assembly. Mitterand'government therefore necessitated Gaullist
participation, and Chirac was appointed premier. In 1998, Chirac again lost
to Mitterand. In May of 1995, however, Chirac was elected French President,
seeking to tackle taxation, unemployment, educational reform, and army
professionalisation. His idea of reducing the Presidential term of office
from seven to five years was popular. Chirac continued Mitterand-type,
pro-EU foreign policy. In 1995, Chirac refused to stop nuclear tests, and in
1999, he backed NATO intervention in Yugoslavia. He dislikes ""high society"
dinners but enjoys meeting with French (and foreign) artists, writers,
architects, actors, musicians, and professors.

Sources:

smh.com.au/articles/2003/07/27/1059244488623.html

cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/07/26/tahiti.nuclear.fallout.ap/index.html

cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2003/06/01/101115-cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2003
/06/02/101839-

canada.com/news/story.asp?id=E2A585C5-24AC-4215-AC64-english.pravda.ru/polit
ics/2002/02/12/26365.html

usainreview.com/2_11_Chirac_Connection.htm

times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200211/kt2002112116461711360.htm

yomari.com/p-review/1998/10/151098/fre.html

pacificislands.cc/pina/pinadefault.php?urlpinaid=8575









France carried out nuclear tests for three decades until 1996 on the
uninhabited Mururoa atoll (about 750 miles southeast of Tahiti), detonating
at least 123 nuclear weapons in the volcanic rock since 1975. Another 8 were
exploded under Fangataufa Atoll, closeby.  Mr Chirac ordered the last round
of South Pacific tests in 1995, after his first presidential victory. In so
doing, Chirac broke a three-year international moratorium on nuclear
testing, causing Australia to suspend defence ties with Paris, and spearhead
an international campaign against France. But Mr Chirac said the total of
193 nuclear weapons tests done by France had no health effects, reiterating
that studies by experts at the Vienna-based International Atomic Energy
Agency (IAEA) had found they posed no threat.

The New Zealand Prime Minister, Helen Clark, yesterday dismissed Mr Chirac's
claim, saying: "My understanding is that the level of cancers reported would
be greater than one would expect."

2. KANAKS GET TEARGAS ON CHIRAC'S VISIT TO NEW CALEDONIA

Police used tear gas on Saturday 26 July to break up militant
pro-independence protestors in New Caledonia during Chirac's visit which
began Wednesday. Angry protestors in Kone shouted 'Chirac murderer' as
Chirac listened to a welcome speech by a pro-independence leader, Paul
Neaouytine. Tear gas canisters were fired by police to disperse the crowd,
but wind blew the gas back towards the official ceremony. New Caledonia's
mainly Kanak USTKE union decided to strike during Chirac's visit. After
Thursday's union-led rally of two-thousand people, they are aiming for a
barbecue outside the French high commission. While USTKE has a wide range a
grievances, Chirac has told 15,000 people in Noumea that he hopes France and
New Caledonia can work together hand in hand in determining the territory's
future. Chirac did not mention the 1998 Noumea accord provision on greater
autonomy, which provides for a freeze of the electorate, to ensure Kanaks
will not be outnumbered by French migrants in future votes. The clause was
not implemented,  because the constitution has not changed accordingly.

Meanwhile, CEO Scot Hand, Inco Ltd. chief of the Goro nickel mining project
in New Caledonia,  thanked Chirac at a mining conference in Kone  for "the
supportive attitude of your officials in addressing French participation in
providing financial support for the project... in spite of our earlier
disappointment, the Goro nickel project is regaining momentum." The
Toronto-based Inco Ltd. recently took an after-tax charge of $26 million
related to Goro. "I have told people around the world that Goro Nickel is
the cornerstone of Inco's future," Hand said. "It is a fundamental and
central part of our growth strategy... Nickel from Goro will serve the fast
growing markets of Asia, particularly China. We are extremely excited about
the potential of that market, but we are more excited about the potential of
Goro." Hand said Inco regretted having to suspend construction while
conducting a comprehensive review of the projected capital costs. "We were
disappointed, as were many people here in New Caledonia, but under the
circumstances it was the right thing to do. In the long run, the delay will
enable us to meet our objective of having a world-class operation."

At a separate meeting in Noumea, Mr Chirac said that New Caledonian census
questions about ethnicity were irresponsible and illegal. He said the idea
of including references to ethnic origins in an official document, is
outrageous, adding that the French republic does not recognise people based
on their ethnic origins.

3. CHIRAC ON NORTH KOREA: NO WAR, NO NUKES

Chirac emphasised in November 2002 that France continues to attach
conditions to the normalization of relations with North Korea, singling out
the weapons' issue and human rights. Human rights activists with an interest
in North Korea are well organized in France, and their campaign against
military intervention with what they see as "the most extraordinary
totalitarian dictatorship on the planet''  influences the French government.
France's lack of enthusiasm in dealing with North Korea reflects both its
desire for an independent foreign policy and domestic pressures.

At the G8 meeting in Evian, Chirac said explicitly that the G8 did not
support the use of military force against Iran and North Korea. The G-8
resolution saw weapons of mass destruction as the pre-eminent threat to
international security, and warned Iran and North Korea about acquiring
nuclear weapons.  "We have a simple position," Chirac said. "We consider all
military action which is not agreed upon by the international community, in
particular the (United Nations) Security Council, to be illegitimate and
illegal and we've naturally not changed our position." Chirac also said
whether it be the Middle East or any other area, "one can wage war alone,
but it is more difficult to make peace by one's self."

On North Korea, the G-8 statement supported Asian countries, including
China, prodding North Korea to comply with its past commitments on nuclear
non-proliferation. On Iran, Chirac said "our hope is that, through
diplomacy, we can get Iran to accept controls."

4. CHIRAC AND THE MIDDLE-EAST CONNECTION

The French-Iraqi connection started after France pulled out of NATO in 1966,
and France has been Iraq's best friend in the West.

Before the Arab-Israeli war of 1967, France was chief supplier of military
equipment to Israel. In fact, France helped Israel build its nuclear reactor
at Dimona, supplied Israel with enriched uranium, and actively helped Israel
develop nuclear weapons. But just before the Arab-Israeli War, France
however abandoned Israel and cultivated the oil-rich Arab nations more,
because De Gaulle did believe Israel could defeat the Arabs.

As French premier in 1974, Chirac consolidated France's ties with oil-rich
Iraq. Chirac called Saddam Hussein "a personal friend" after Chirac and
Hussein finalized the agreement for a French-built nuclear reactor near
Baghdad; the reactor was later bombed by Israel.

By the late 1970s France was second only to the Soviet Union as supplier of
military and civilian harware to Iraq,. The trend continued in the 1980s and
1990s, when hundreds of French firms were doing business in Iraq,  including
Alcatel, Renault, and oil exploration companies who invested an estimated
$60 billion. France strongly backed Iraq during its war against Iran with
Mirage Fighters, Super Etendard aircraft with Exocet missiles, and
sophisticated munitions.

The Gulf War of 1991 provided little more than a hiccup in French-Iraqi
relations, and French firms were earnt more than any other country from
exporting to Iraq under the oil-for-food program. By 1994, France called for
a loosening of UN sanctions and along with Russia, attempting to
short-circuit UNSCOM at every step. France campaigned for more oil sales
from Iraq. When the US and Britain demanded tough controls to ensure the
increased oil revenues would not be used to buy weaponry, the French
objected saying such controls would undermine "Iraqi sovereignty". From 1997
on, France fought to get UN sanctions lifted entirely. Under intense
pressure from France and Russia, the UN eventually loosened restrictions on
high-tech equipment, enabling Iraq to buy hardware, which the USA and UK
claimed had military applications.

5. CURRENT FRENCH FOREIGN POLICY ON NON-PROLIFERATION

France's foreign policy priorities, as stated on 23 September, 1998 at the
UN General Assembly by French foreign minister Hubert Vedrine, are nuclear
non-proliferation, reform of the UN, human rights and Francophony. France
desires reinforcing the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation
system. Vedrine said "following the nuclear tests in South Asia, of which
everyone measures the attendant risks, we must reinforce the
anti-proliferation regime and pursue the disarmament process in all its
aspects -- nuclear, conventional, chemical and biological... our first aim
should be the entry into force as speedily as possible of the Comprehensive
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty... France, with the United Kingdom, was the first
nuclear-weapon State to ratify the treaty and is the only one to have
completed the dismantlement of its testing centre." Verdine called upon all
states that have not done so, "including India and Pakistan", to adhere to
CNTBT, taking note of their announced intention "not to carry out any more
nuclear tests.... the nuclear tests in south Asia have given us a resounding
reminder that a very serious regional territorial dispute combined, rightly
or wrongly, with a sense of insecurity could pay the way for nuclear and
ballistic proliferation."

Jacques Maillard, a senior official dealing with non-proliferation, has
stated that Paris' "main concern is to promote non-proliferation by
diplomatic actions." India, Pakistan and Israel "needed to be encouraged to
become parties." to the CNTBT.  North Korea, he said, is "a country with a
suspected nuclear-weapons capability" which could "bargain" for goodies,
thus establishing "a dangerous global trend." On the Indo-Pakistan nuclear
question, Maillard said France could "not approve" of their nuclear tests;
"all nuclear states have shown much restraint, after we stopped testing";
"it is not good news to have nuclear testing by any party in the world".
France tries to maintain dialogue with India and Pakistan.

France's human rights policy and its nexus with its overall foreign policy
is clarified by Charley Causeret, another senior foreign office official.
France's view is that "no country can be projected as a US model as far as
human rights goes - France accepts that there are different forms". Paris'
stance differs, for example, from that of the Scandinavian countries which
often "tend to act like preachers". "We feel that no state is perfect; each
has to help the other in improving" its human rights record. Such an
approach "helps to get off the vicious circle which consists of presenting
resolutions at the UN Human Rights Commission condemning one country or the
other." "France's position thus represents a kind of boundary line between
countries of the North and those of the South. Hence, we want to make the UN
Commission on Human Rights a place for exchange of ideas on human rights and
to take into account implementation."

Causeret claims "Each year, Iran is presented as a country that is a
violator of human rights. Each year, the Netherlands and the UK push
resolutions against Iran. But France says that if there are resolutions, we
have also to take into account the progress made e.g. in the area of women's
rights." "It is clear that the position of Iran is not perfect. But why
should we insist on the right of women in Iran and not mention the position
of women in Saudi Arabia?" France  believes that "you cannot separate civil
and political rights from economic rights." Generally, he said, developed
countries pinpoint civil and political rights, while developing countries
point more to economic and social rights. On child prostitution, Causeret
declared that it is "not enough to point to the problem." In France's view:
"We need legislation to train social workers and magistrates. This is how we
can help countries promote human rights."

6. CHIRAC: BACKGROUND ON HIS POLITICAL CAREER

Jacques Chirac was born November 29, 1932 in Paris. He graduated from the
Institut d'Etudes politiques de Paris in 1954 and the Ecole Nationale
d'Adminstration in 1959, specialising in public administration and French
politics. He also attended a Harvard Summer School in the USA. A Catholic,
he married on March 16, 1956 and has two daughters (one of whom, Claude,
recently starred as presidential "aide d'image"", being mentioned in a
public scandal about undeclared spending by Chirac of $300,000 during
1992-1995, on 20 lavish trips). At this time, Chirac joined the army and
served in Algeria 1956-57. In 1957, he returned to France and studied at the
Ecole Nationale d'Administration, which trains high level public servants.
His career took off in 1962, when he got a job at the governmental personnel
office under de Gaulle's presidency.

By 1968, Jacques Chirac was secretary of state for social issues, in charge
of employment problems and took part in negotiations with students and
striking workers. This activity helped his promotion to Secretary of State
for economic and financial issues, over the next several years. In 1974,
after being minister for agriculture, Chirac became internal affairs
minister. When Valery Giscard d'Estaing became president in April of 1974,
Chirac became premier. The same year, he became the secretary-general of the
Gaullist Union of Democrats. Chirac resigned as premier in 1976 due to
conflicts with Giscard d'Estaing. Soon after, Chirac became president of the
Union of Democrats. Between 1977 and 1995, Chirac was also mayor of Paris.
In 1979-1980, he served as member of the European Parliament.

In 1981, Chirac lost the presidential candicacy to socialist Francois
Mitterand, but The Union for Republic and the Union for the French Democracy
joined in a coalition, and gained the majority of seats at the National
Assembly. Mitterand'government therefore necessitated Gaullist
participation, and Chirac was appointed premier. In 1998, Chirac again lost
to Mitterand. In May of 1995, however, Chirac was elected French President,
seeking to tackle taxation, unemployment, educational reform, and army
professionalisation. His idea of reducing the Presidential term of office
from seven to five years was popular. Chirac continued Mitterand-type,
pro-EU foreign policy. In 1995, Chirac refused to stop nuclear tests, and in
1999, he backed NATO intervention in Yugoslavia. He dislikes ""high society"
dinners but enjoys meeting with French (and foreign) artists, writers,
architects, actors, musicians, and professors.

Sources:

smh.com.au/articles/2003/07/27/1059244488623.html
cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/07/26/tahiti.nuclear.fallout.ap/index.html
cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2003/06/01/101115-cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/World/2003
/06/02/101839-
canada.com/news/story.asp?id=E2A585C5-24AC-4215-AC64-english.pravda.ru/polit
ics/2002/02/12/26365.html
usainreview.com/2_11_Chirac_Connection.htm
times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200211/kt2002112116461711360.htm
yomari.com/p-review/1998/10/151098/fre.html
pacificislands.cc/pina/pinadefault.php?urlpinaid=8575














More information about the Marxism mailing list