[Marxism] The food-dog-methodism connection III: handy hints from Science Daily Encyclopedia about the linguistic dimension of political life

Jurriaan Bendien andromeda246 at hetnet.nl
Wed Apr 28 03:01:34 MDT 2004


An Organization (or organisation) is a formal group of people with one or
more shared goals
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/organization

Meaning is one of the most difficult and complex concepts we have (...)
Meaning in a wider sense is also part of the general theory of information.
This theory tries to formulate rules, about the way meaningful information
is emerging, how meaningful information is conserved, how the meaning of
something can be measured, and how information with meaning is lost again.
The meaning of an information or a thing is its value or its sense. Often
the meaning of an information or a thing is only realized, when it is lost
or it tends to get lost. http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/meaning

Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common
system of symbols. "Communications" is the academic discipline which studies
communication. The Latin root word of "communication" is comunicare, which
has three possible meanings: 1. "to make common", which is probably derived
from either 2 or 3 2. cum + munus, i.e. having gifts to share in a mutual
donation. 3. cum + munire, i.e. building together a defense, like the walls
of a city (...) There is no single definition of communication which
satisfies everyone. In 1970, Frank Dance identified 126 published
definitions. To some people "communication" implies different, and sometimes
conflicting, concepts. On the one hand, it means to have a thoughtful
exchange of views, via a meaningful dialogue between two humans; however, it
can also refer to a simple message transmitted without thought or appeals
for feedback. With this latter definition, machines and "lower" animals can
be said to communicate. Anxiety associated with communication is known as
communication apprehension. Such anxiety tends to be influenced by one's
self-concept. Besides apprehension, communication can be impaired via
bypassing, indiscrimination, and polarization.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/communication

Kubrick started his career as a professional photographer (...) His first
feature films, Fear and Desire and Killer's Kiss, caught the attention of
Hollywood, and he won major acclaim for the classic film noir The Killing
before making his mark with the award-winning Paths of Glory. Kubrick's
unique filmmaking style developed with these pictures, and his trademarks
became clear: long takes, extensive tracking shots, facial expressions, and
a cold, distant style that tended to drain the tenderness and humanity out
of the stories his films told. Kubrick's one attempt to adapt to the
Hollywood "epic" film, Spartacus, is considered a great film itself, but
Kubrick was at odds with both the cast (especially its star Kirk Douglas)
and the crew. The battles waged over Spartacus convinced Kubrick that he
would never work within the Hollywood system again, and he remained an
outsider to the end of his life. He moved to England in the early 1960s to
make Lolita and lived there for the rest of his life. He owned and resided
at Childwickbury Manor in the district of St Albans. Much of the filming of
his later movies involved careful reproduction of foreign locations, e.g.,
scenes in Full Metal Jacket were filmed at Beckton Gasworks.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/stanley_kubrick

Dr. Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is a professor of linguistics
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and creator of the Chomsky
hierarchy, a classification of formal languages.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/noam_chomsky

Information which isn't secret is called unclassified information, which
carries the doublespeak implication that the natural state of information is
to be classified, in other words, to be made secret.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/classified_information

A Doublespeak Argument is the name given to an argument, or debate, where
one or more sides seems to be using reasonings that are not the real
reasonings for that side. This is usually alleged to have been done because
the real reasonings may be offensive in some way, and that side feels that
its other reasonings will be strong enough to win the debate.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/doublespeak_argument

Doublespeak is language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its
actual meaning; often resulting a "communication bypass". Such language is
associated with governmental, military, and corporate institutions. The word
doublespeak was coined in the early 1950s. It is often incorrectly
attributed to George Orwell and his dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
(...) Successfully introduced doublespeak, over time, becomes part of the
general language, shaping the context in which it is used. (...) Whereas in
the early days of the practice it was considered wrong to construct words to
disguise meaning, this is now an accepted and established practice. There is
a thriving industry in constructing words without explicit meaning but with
particular connotations for new products or companies. For example, in 1972
Esso (itself a neologism from the acronym for "Standard Oil") changed to
Exxon, a name chosen after the company invested $100 million checking that
Exxon does not translate to anything in over 54 langauages spanning 154
international markets. (...)
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/doublespeak

In communications and linguistics, bypassing is misunderstanding that
develops when the recipient of a message infers a different meaning from
that intended by the source. Most commonly, this involves confusion that may
result from the different meanings of words; particularly, slang and
euphemisms -- such confusion can be one of the goals of doublespeak. See
also: indiscrimination, polarization (psychology).
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/bypassing

Fraud is, roughly, the crime or offense of deliberately deceiving another in
order to damage them -- usually, to obtain property or services from him
unjustly. Forms of fraud include confidence tricks such as the 419 fraud;
false advertising; identity theft; forgery of documents or signatures; the
selling of products of spurious use, such as quack medicines; creation of
false companies or "long firms"; false insurance claims; and securities
frauds such as pump and dump.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/fraud

Advance fee fraud, often also known as the Nigerian money transfer fraud,
Nigeria scam or 419 scam after the relevant section of the Nigerian criminal
code, is a fraudulent scheme to extract money from investors living in rich
countries in Europe, Australasia, or North America. Although these
confidence tricks originated in Nigeria, they have since become a worldwide
criminal activity that is conservatively estimated to net billions of
dollars a year.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/advance_fee_fraud

An academic scandal is one that exposes the unethical or erroneous work of a
major academic figure. Academic scandal is closely related to journalism
fraud.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/academic_scandal

Journalism fraud includes practices such as plagiarism, fabrication of
quotes, facts, or other report details, staging or altering the event being
putatively recorded, or anything else that may call the integrity and
truthfulness of a piece of journalism into question. As their reputations
for accuracy and truthfulness are arguably the most important assets of mass
media outlets, many strictly enforce codes of journalistic ethics and
carefully screen their reports for factual accuracy, publishing corrections
even for minor errors soon after a story appears. When a case of journalism
fraud is discovered (especially at a prestigious media outlet), it is widely
reported upon. http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/journalism_fraud

Social inequality generally refers to the distribution of material wealth in
a society. Although there appears a consensus of what constitutes social
inequality, there is far less agreement over the causes of it. (...) There
are two contrasting solutions: one is simply greater equality of outcome;
the other is more equal opportunity.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/social_inequality
Exploitation is derived from from exploit; the act of exploiting. a. To make
use of or productively utilize. b. To make use of in an unjust, cruel or
selfish manner for one's own advantage. In sociology, exploitation refers to
the use of people as a resource, with little or no consideration of their
well being. It is seen often as a socio-economic phenomenon, where poor
people are exploited for their labors in service of a powerful entity, like
a state or a corporation. The use of the word 'exploitation' is a common,
humanist characterisation of the work for pay system, when it is applied
with cruelty, or with compulsion, or on terms that are disagreeable to the
employee.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/exploitation

In psychotherapy, paradoxical intention is the deliberate practice of a
neurotic habit or thought, undertaken in order to identify and remove it.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/paradoxical_intention

Cynicism was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called
the Cynics, led by Antisthenes. Nowadays the word is generally used,
somewhat pejoratively, to refer to somebody who is inclined to disbelieve in
human sincerity, virtue, or altruism: an individual who maintains that human
behavior is motivated entirely by self-interest. A modern cynic is typically
highly contemptuous of social norms, especially those which serve more of a
ritualistic purpose than a practical one, and will tend to dismiss a
substantial proportion of popular beliefs and accepted wisdom as "bullshit".
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/cynicism

The word faith has various uses; its central meaning is equivalent to
"belief", "trust" or "confidence". As such, the object of faith can be
either a person (or even an inanimate object or state of affairs) or a
proposition (or body of propositions, such as a religious credo). (...) Most
Jews, Christians and Muslims admit that whatever particular evidence or
reason they may possess that God exists and is deserving of trust, is not
ultimately the basis for their believing. Thus, in this sense faith refers
to belief beyond evidence or logical arguments, sometimes called "implicit
faith". Another form of this kind of faith is fideism: one ought to believe
that God exists, but one should not base that belief on any other beliefs;
one should, instead, accept it without any reasons at all. Faith in this
sense, grounded simply in the sincerity of faith, belief on the basis of
believing, is often associated with Soren Kierkegaard for example, and some
other existentialist religious thinkers; his views are presented in Fear and
Trembling. William Sloane Coffin counters that faith is not acceptance
without proof, but trust without reservation.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/encyclopedia/faith

Jurriaan







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