[Marxism] Anthro 101 and Apes and Monkeys

Charles Brown cbrown at michiganlegal.org
Wed Dec 29 14:43:54 MST 2004

Most  of these use the outdated definition of species. See the 24th one
down, though



Definitions of species on the Web:

	(biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed 

		a specific kind of something; "a species of molecule"; "a
species of villainy" 

		(1) a group of organisms that have a unique set of
characteristics (like body shape and behavior) that distinguishes them from
other organisms. If they reproduce, individuals within the same species can
produce fertile offspring. (2) the basic unit of biological classification.
Scientists refer to species using both their genus and species name. The
house cat, for example, is called Felis catus. 

		From Section 3(15) of the Federal Endangered Species Act:
"The term 'species' includes any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants,
and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or
wildlife which interbreeds when mature." A population of individuals that
are more or less alike, and that are able to breed and produce fertile
offspring under natural conditions. 

		The lowest principal unit of biological classification
formally recognized as a group of organisms distinct from other groups. In
sexually producing organisms, "species" is more narrowly characterized as a
group of organisms that in natural conditions freely interbreed with members
of the same group but not with members of other groups. 
	www.accdc.com/glossary/ <http://www.accdc.com/glossary/>  

		in sexually reproducing organisms, a species is a group of
genetically related organisms, usually similar in physical appearance, that
actually or potentially interbreed and are reproductively isolated from
other groups 

		A classification of related organisms that can freely
interbreed to produce fertile offspring, and usually resemble each other
most closely. 

		- Groups of actually (or potentially) interbreeding natural
populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Reproductive isolation implies that interbreeding between individuals of two
species normally is prevented by intrinsic factors. 

		A group of organisms that differ from all other groups of
organisms and that are capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring.
This is the smallest unit of classification for plants and animals. 

		A group of organisms which are capable of interbreeding to
produce viable offspring. 

		Term used to describe the group of like individuals.
Classically species were defined as organisms that share certain
	ucbiotech.org/glossary/ <http://ucbiotech.org/glossary/>  

		The species is the fundamental unit of biological
organization. Members of a species are genetically similar and normally mate
only with other members of the same species, thus preserving that genetic

		A classification of related organisms that can freely

		a group of interbreeding organisms that can produce
offspring with the capacity for viable reproduction. 

		A group of related organisms having common characteristics
capable of interbreeding. Loblolly and Virginia pine are common species that
can be interbred. 

		[n] a group of organisms that form an interbreeding
population that is reproductively isolated from other populations 

		A group of similar fish that can freely interbreed. 
	www.ccchfa.org/glossary.htm <http://www.ccchfa.org/glossary.htm>  

		a group of organisms capable of interbreeding freely with
each other but not with members of other species. (Note by JVG: this is a
simplified definition; species concept is much more complex.) - a taxonomic
rank below a genus, consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging
genes or interbreeding. [CUB] 

		A group of interbreeding individuals, not interbreeding with
another such group, being a taxonomic unit including two names in binomial
nomenclature, the generic name and specific epithet, similar and related
species being grouped into a genus. From the Latin, species, "particular

		A "species" is generally accepted as a group of individuals
that look the same and can breed with each other but not usually with
individuals of another species. "Species" is the the lowest level of plant
classification. This is part of the science called "taxonomy". Scientists
refer to living things by a combined "genus" and "species" name, using Latin
terms. For example, people are called "Homo sapiens". A white pine would be
called "Pinus strobus". A scientist anywhere in the world can look up
information about any living organism by knowing the Latin or scientific
name. The genus name is always capitalized. The species name is usually not
capitalized. Incidentally, the word "specie" is incorrect. "Species" is the
correct singular and plural form of the word. [To return to previous page,
click your browser's BACK button then scroll through the page to your last

		A group of related organisms having common characteristics
and capable of interbreeding. Loblolly and Virginia pine are common tree
species that can interbreed. 

		A group of similar and related organisms 

		Populations of organisms that may interbreed and produce
fertile offspring having similar structure, habits, and functions. 

		, n: The boundaries of this taxonomic level (the most
precise in the hierarchical system of binomial nomenclature ) are hotly
debated among scientists and there is little real consensus about where to
draw the lines between species, subspecies, morphs, races, variants, etc. In
general, a species is a group of organisms that resemble one another in
appearance, general behavior, ecological niche, chemical makeup and
processes, and genetic structure. Organisms that reproduce sexually are
classified as members of the same species only if they can actually or
potentially interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring. It
should be noted that some (though quite few) taxonomists believe the species
level of classification is frequently invalid and these scientists only
recognize classifications down to the level of genus (again, these
taxonomists represent a very small minority view). 

		A species is a fundamental category of taxonomic
classification ranking after genus and consisting of organisms capable of

		Organisms that are capable of interbreeding and is
designated by a binomial term in Latin. The species designation of timber
wolf or gray wolf is Canis lupus. 

		the most specific taxonomic classification; an interbreeding
population of individual organisms; often abbreviated as 'sp.' in reference
to a single species or 'spp.' when referencing several species 

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