[Marxism] James K. Galbraith on the recent "boom"

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Mon Jun 28 09:39:15 MDT 2004

Squeezing workers
The latest economic numbers are hard to be optimistic about, especially 
since the Bush administration's solutions are likely to further increase 
corporate profits, not jobs and wages.

- - - - - - - - - - - -
By James K. Galbraith, salon.com

June 28, 2004  |  Let me start by reminding you what I wrote in my Salon 
column just last month:

"The outlook, therefore, isn't for another noninflationary boom. It's 
for stagflation -- the combination of low performance and rising prices 
some of us dimly remember from the Vietnam War."

Let me also remind you that last March, when the United States had its 
first month of good job growth in a while, I labeled the ensuing media 
frenzy "a fit of ejaculatio praecox." Since which time, we've heard not 
a line of doubt from the business press. "The economy is strong and 
getting stronger," said President Bush, and like good soldiers, the 
commentariat fell in line.

But today we have news that is hard to avoid. Newly revised data are out 
from that exciting, inspiring, fantastic first quarter.

Real economic growth did not accelerate to 4.4 percent from the 4.1 
percent pace of the fourth quarter of 2003, as first thought. Instead, 
the growth rate fell, to 3.9 percent. Meanwhile, inflation rose faster 
than predicted. The inflation rate was 3.5 percent for gross domestic 
purchases, as opposed to the previously estimated 3.3 percent. The chain 
price deflator (a commonly used measure of inflation) was up to 2.9 
percent from 2.6 percent, and core inflation (excluding food and energy) 
was up to 2 percent from 1.7 percent.

Forecasters were caught flatfooted by these revisions. They had expected 
the growth rate to be unchanged at 4.4 percent -- not rising inflation.

Why is this happening? The most important reason is the effect of 
increasing demand on imports. Imports came in high, partly as an 
enduring consequence of outsourcing and the loss of domestic 
competitiveness during the Bush slump. With a falling dollar and a 
rising price for fuel, imports are also more expensive, putting a double 
whammy on the trade deficit.

Moreover, it was spending on nondurable goods (including gas) that was 
up -- by almost 7 percent -- while spending on durable goods actually 
declined. This is not a good sign.

Why the surprise? It lies partly in the incurable optimism of members of 
the business press. They want growth and rising markets. They believe in 
the psychological power of their own voices. But they have no underlying 
theory beyond the idea that psychology matters and that optimism leads 
to growth. Doubters therefore get squelched. Our voices are dissonant, 
and our arguments are, well, just a bit too difficult. But when bad 
things happen, we are not surprised.

What have the effects been on working families? We already knew that 
real wages have fallen so far in 2004, which is another way of saying 
that consumer price inflation has outpaced average wage growth. Sen. 
John Kerry made this point accurately the other day -- and got attacked 
for it in the Washington Post, which then had to print a correction. It 
read in part: "We were wrong and Mr. Kerry was right: Hourly wages for 
non-supervisory workers rose 2.2 percent, while the consumer price index 
rose 3.1 percent."

Will we make up for this in the second quarter, giving Karl Rove his 
perfectly timed election boom? Six months ago, I'd have said yes. Now, 
though, one can't be sure. I'd been figuring on large tax refunds and an 
"echo" in military spending as the Pentagon restocked its munitions one 
year after the start of the Iraq war. Are these happening? I don't know. 
There are few indicators from the second quarter yet. Housing appears 
strong -- everyone wants to beat rising mortgage rates. But 
manufacturing orders are down for two months in a row.

Meanwhile, all indications are that the Federal Reserve will start 
raising interest rates this week. Don't take that too seriously, 
however: It could still be bluff. In the late 1990s, for years on end, 
Fed chairman Alan Greenspan signaled that interest rates would soon 
rise. Yet in meeting after meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee, 
they did not. (It was Greenspan's finest hour.)

The economic weakness now showing up might persuade him to hold off for 
six more weeks. The rising inflation rate might, on the other hand, 
persuade him to raise rates more aggressively. Inflation is still low, 
but it's not hypothetical any longer.

If Greenspan raises rates, what does he expect the move will actually 
accomplish? Most who comment on this topic treat rising interest rates 
as a necessary, inevitable, irresistible reaction to rising prices. The 
motivation and the mechanism are beyond the scope of an intelligent 
question. And so the press does not ever ask what the exact link from 
rising interest rates to inflation control might be.

For members of the Federal Reserve, which meets in private, there is no 
similar excuse. They know. They know that the only reason to raise 
interest rates is to slow down the economic growth rate and so to 
increase unemployment. Their theory -- the only theory they've got -- 
holds that rising inflation is a consequence of labor markets that are 
too tight, of unemployment rates that are too low, of wages rising 
faster than prices and rising real wages squeezing real profits.

But wait. We know this is not the case. We are still short well over 1 
million jobs compared with where we were four years back. We are still 
at least 5 million jobs short of what we should have. And while 
productivity is rising, real wages are falling. Whatever is pushing up 
prices, in other words, it isn't wages. The only thing in full boom 
right now is corporate profits -- up a stunning 40 percent over the past 

The inflation the United States is experiencing isn't demand-driven. 
It's a product of the war, oil price uncertainty and monopolistic 
manipulations in sectors like healthcare.

But Team Greenspan and Team Bush don't care. Their only solution to the 
inflation problem is to squeeze working families so hard that they don't 
have money to spend on anything else.


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