[Marxism] Distant (Uzak)

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Fri Mar 19 10:40:18 MST 2004

I wasn't planning to write about the Turkish film "Distant", which is now 
playing in NYC, but words in today's NY Times review of a new Icelandic 
film got me thinking:

"The director, Dagur Kari, making his feature film debut, has a clean, 
understated style. Like certain filmmakers from Asia -- Tsai Ming-Liang of 
Taiwan, for example -- he moves the camera only when absolutely necessary 
and constructs his scenes as a series of deadpan visual jokes. At the very 
beginning the camera is stationed near the adjoining doorways of Noi's 
bedroom and his grandmother's to record her methodical manner of helping 
him wake up. She walks across the frame, into her room, and returns with a 
rifle, which she carefully fires out the window."

Since this is exactly the way that "Distant" is constructed, it might be 
useful to look at it as an expression of a style that is rapidly 
consolidating itself internationally. I can think of no term like 'nouvelle 
vague' that describes it exactly or any manifesto that announces it like 
Dogme '95, but it certainly appears to follow its own austere rules. You 
can see many elements of this style in Iranian film as well, especially in 
the works of Kiarostami.

Directed by Nuri Bilge Ceylan, "Distant" ("Uzak") is a minimalist tale of 
two cousins in Istanbul who live together but barely speak. One is Mahmut 
(Muzaffer Ozdemir), a frustrated commercial photographer working for a tile 
factory who once had dreams of being the Turkish Tarkovsky; the other is 
Yusuf (Mehmet Emin Toprak), a country bumpkin who lost his job after the 
local factory closed down. Mehmet Emin Toprak was actually Ceylan's cousin, 
who died in an auto accident shortly after "Distant" was made.

This is not the first film by Ceylan that explores cultural and class 
alienation between men such as these. In his 1999 "Clouds of May" that I 
saw in the New Directors/New Films series at Lincoln Center, the director 
featured a character named Muzaffer (Muzaffer Ozdemir), who is in the 
countryside making a film about village life that stars his relatives. His 
cousin (also played by real-life cousin M. Emin Toprak) is an unemployed 
factory worker whom Muzaffer hires to lug around cameras and other 
equipment and who dreams that movie-making can be an escape from the tedium 
and economic insecurity of the countryside. Meanwhile Muzaffer has little 
interest in the lives of his relatives beyond what is useful for his film.

In one scene his father Emin (M. Emin Ceylan, the director's real-life 
father) goes on at length about the possible loss of a grove of trees he 
has nurtured since youth. (Local officials plan to chop them down in the 
name of a typically Kemalist "modernization" project). While his father 
pours out his fears, Muzaffer can only fret about the amount of film 
they're using.

If anything, the Muzaffer character, who we assume must be a stand-in for 
Ceylan himself, becomes even more self-involved and remote in "Distant". 
After having lost his wife who is about to move to Canada with her new 
husband, Mahmut mopes around his apartment all day long or stares at his 
television set. His favorite fare is pornographic videos, even though it is 
apparent that he has a vast library of fine literature and art films on 
VHS. In one of the few scenes where we see him interacting with people 
other than his cousin, he tells a gathering of Istanbul intellectuals that 
"photography is dead".

Hiring his cousin Yusuf as an assistant, they go out into the Anatolian 
countryside to do some art photography. After stumbling across a 
breathtakingly beautiful landscape, Mahmut decides not to even set up the 
camera since it is a "waste of fucking time", thereby vindicating his 
statement to the intelligentsia.

If Mahmut's problems are artistic and existential in nature, Yusuf's are 
mundanely economic. He dreams of becoming part of the crew on an ocean 
liner and prowls Istanbul's docks futilely in search of a job. When he is 
not out looking for work, he stalks attractive women from Mahmut's upscale 
Beyoglu neighborhood although it is obvious that none of them would have 
any time for a penniless country boy.

When the two men interact with each other in the apartment, it is a mixture 
of "The Odd Couple" and Ingmar Bergman's "Winter Light". Whether a toilet 
is flushed or not becomes invested with a kind of Bergmanesque angst. Since 
the entire film is set in some of Istanbul's infrequent snowy days, the 
effect is that much more pronounced. Flashes of understated comic 
brilliance and some of the finest cinematography I have ever seen in recent 
years relieve this film from a tedium that easily could have overtaken it. 
Before launching a career as a film-maker, Ceylan was a professional 
photographer. His ability to frame a scene clearly owes a lot to his past 

The real question, however, is whether or not this approach to film-making 
can offer much more than a kind of highly aesthetic existential drama in 
which not only communication is at a minimum; there is no catharsis in a 
meaningful dramatic sense. Ultimately, films are drama. Going back to Greek 
tragedy, a character is forced to confront some painful series of events 
that will leave him with a greater wisdom about himself or herself. In the 
modern age, there have been constant efforts to either reject or supersede 
this approach with mixed results.

Finally, it might be said that "Distant" is ultimately a political film 
even though it contains not a single political discussion. The failure of 
artists to be engaged with their work and the failure of working people to 
find a job is not a failure of individual human beings. It is a failure of 
society and an economic system. In the difficult time that Turkey has been 
passing through over the past decade, political resistance has not taken 
shape in the way that it did in the 1960s and 70s. This will certainly 
weigh on the shoulders of a sensitive and gifted artist like Nuri Bilge Ceylan.

In an interview with the International Herald Tribune on May 24-25, 2003, 
Ceylan described "Distant" as "a criticism of how we live in cities." He 
added, "I see how my intellectual friends live in Istanbul; their hopes 
fade and they have nothing to turn to. In villages, people help each other 
- in the village I came from, there was a house where a hot meal was served 
every day for people who had less. But in city life, people are more 
reserved. We create our own prisons. The city has hardships, anonymity, 
unemployment. Turkey is one of the most famous countries for hospitality, 
but we're losing it because we want to be like Western cities."

When you stop and think about it, this is not just a problem for Turkey but 
for nearly the entire planet. I for one am looking forward to Ceylan's next 
film, no matter his esthetic predispositions.

Louis Proyect
Marxism list: www.marxmail.org 

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