[Marxism] Bolivia's Gas war heats up
fred.fuentes at gmail.com
Thu Apr 14 20:48:06 MDT 2005
Bolivia's Gas war heats up
by Jennifer Whitney
12 Apr 2005
High in the Andes, in the impoverished city of El Alto, history was
made in March. Leaders and spokespeople of movements from across the
country gathered to relaunch the People's General Staff – a social
movement coordinating body established in 2001. Many are
antagonists, but have agreed to attempt to work together. As
Movement Towards Socialism leader Evo Morales said, "When the right
wing, the government, the oligarchy, and the transnationals unite,
we are forced to unite as well."
Bolivia is Latin America's poorest country, after Haiti. Though it
is rich in natural resources, 70 percent of the population lives
below the poverty line. It also has the highest percentage of
indigenous peoples of any country in the western hemisphere; 62
percent of its 8.7 million inhabitants belong to one of 37 nations.
Throughout the last 500 years, foreign invaders have stripped the
country of its wealth of silver, saltpeter and tin, bankrolling the
Spanish empire for centuries and engaging in a war that cost Bolivia
its access to the Pacific Ocean.
In recent years, the U.S. "war on drugs" has ravaged the central
Chapare region, where coca leaf – from which cocaine can be
extracted – has been grown for traditional use for millennia.
Currently, transnational corporations export Bolivia's natural gas,
getting $10 back for every dollar invested.
Powerful Social Movements
Much to the chagrin of the contemporary plunderers, however, Bolivia
also boasts some of the most vibrant social movements in the region.
El Alto's predominantly indigenous Aymara population has become
renowned for their road blockades, building occupations, and hunger
strikes – tactics that have won them numerous victories against a
rabidly neoliberal government.
These movements have reversed the privatization of Cochabamba's
water by Bechtel; won the right to continue legally growing coca in
the Chapare; rolled back IMF-imposed taxation and slashing of social
services; overthrown U.S.-backed president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada
and forced an agreement from Congress to put him on trial for
massacres in the "Gas War" of October 2003, while demanding that his
successor, Carlos Mesa, nationalize the nation's vast gas reserves
and begin a participatory process to reform the constitution.
Despite these victories, there have been great divisions, as well as
suspicion of the leftist political party, Movement Towards
Socialism, led by coca farmer turned parliamentarian Evo Morales.
These suspicions reached a peak last year, when Morales endorsed
President Mesa's gas referendum, which did not address the principal
demand of nationalization. The Aymara of the Altiplano, who called
for a boycott of the referendum and who suffered the greatest losses
during the "Gas War," remain leery of Morales's relationship with
Mesa, and the concessions he has made in an effort to woo the middle
class as he gears up for a second bid for the presidency (he lost by
just 1.5 percent in 2002).
The catalyst for the historic convergence was a cascade of events.
In January, after four months of struggle, residents of El Alto won
a promise from the government to terminate its water contract with
Aguas del Illimani, a subsidiary of the French corporation Suez.
During the same month, the country was paralyzed as people blocked
highways to protest price hikes in diesel fuel and gasoline.
Two months later Aguas del Illimani was still operating in El Alto,
charging exorbitant rates and showing no signs of leaving. So
members of the Federation of Neighborhood Committees blocked most
roads leading from the capital La Paz, situated in a valley below.
Meanwhile, in Santa Cruz, bus drivers initiated further protests
against fuel price hikes. On March 7, Mesa attempted to resign,
blaming Morales and Neighborhood Federation leader Abel Mamani for
It was a shrewd move, calculated to re-legitimize his
administration, which in 17 months has seen around 800 protests.
Mesa's supporters took to the streets, and Congress, which was in
the midst of lengthy debates over a new gas bill, refused to accept
his resignation or call for early elections.
Mesa's strategy backfired: Blockades sealed off seven out of the
nine departments (states) in the country, forcing Mesa to apologize
publicly to Morales and negotiate with the newly formed coalition.
The day after the People's General Staff signed an agreement
formalizing their coalition, a 48-hour general strike was set to
begin. That same day, March 16, Congress' lower house passed a new
gas law. It fell short of the bare minimum demand by the social
movements – that barring nationalization, transnationals pay Bolivia
50 percent of the royalties.
However, Congress did impose an immediate tax increase on the
transnationals that would result in up to (U.S.) $450 million in
revenue, less than the amount generated by the Movement Towards
Socialism proposal, but a far cry better than the current
This bill, just approved by a Senate committee, is a slap in the
face to Mesa and the transnationals. (They argue that the gas
belongs to them the moment it emerges from underground.) Some
members of the People's General Staff have sworn to shut down
Parliament if the Senate doesn't pass the bill, and the Movement
Towards Socialism will be sending people into the streets to
maintain pressure, beginning in mid-April.
Even if the Senate approves the bill, the struggle will continue. As
Jaime Solares of the Federation of Bolivian Workers put it, "Faced
with the moment the country is going through, we are fighting to
make the 50 percent royalty paid by the oil companies a reality. But
we are not renouncing the demand for nationalization."
Until that demand is met, the radical alliance in Bolivia will not
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