[Marxism] Britain helped Israel develop Nuclear weapons without telling US

Calvin Broadbent calvinbroadbent at hotmail.com
Thu Aug 4 09:37:40 MDT 2005


http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4743493.stm

How Britain helped Israel get the bomb
Newsnight reporter Michael Crick tells the story of how Britain helped 
Israel build the bomb - without telling the Americans.


Documents uncovered by Newsnight in the British National Archives show how, 
in 1958, Britain agreed to sell Israel 20 tonnes of heavy water, a vital 
ingredient for the production of plutonium at Israel's top secret Dimona 
nuclear reactor in the Negev desert.

Robert McNamara, President John F Kennedy's defence secretary, has told 
Newsnight he is "astonished" at the revelation that Britain kept this secret 
from America.



In Wednesday's programme, Newsnight reveals how British officials decided it 
would be "over-zealous" to impose safeguards on the Israelis, and chose not 
to insist that Israel use the heavy water only for peaceful purposes.
Earlier the Americans had refused to supply heavy water to Israel without 
such safeguards.

Making money

The documents unearthed by Newsnight also show British officials decided not 
to tell Washington about it.

  They seemed to have no idea of the implications of what they were doing

Lord Gilmour
Former Defence and Foreign Office minister
"On the whole I would prefer NOT to mention this to the Americans," 
concluded Donald Cape of the Foreign Office. When contacted by Newsnight 
this week, Mr Cape said he could remember nothing about the episode.

"I think it is quite extraordinary," says the former Conservative Defence 
and Foreign Office minister Lord Gilmour. "Whether the civil servants who 
were involved knew what they were doing, or whether they didn't, I don't 
know." He thinks they put Britain's economic interests first.

"One must assume they must have known... And what's more they seemed to have 
no idea of the political or indeed even the technical and foreign-policy 
implications of what they were doing. They just seemed to be concerned with 
making a bit of money."

Escaping criticism

Until now both France and Norway have been criticised for helping the 
Israelis develop the bomb, but Britain has escaped criticism.


It's very surprising to me that we weren't told

Robert McNamara


Frank Barnaby, who worked on the British bomb project in the 1950s, and 
later debriefed the Israeli whistle-blower Mordechai Vanunu, says he had "no 
idea" that Britain was "involved" in supplying Israel with heavy water.

"Heavy water was crucial for Israel," he says. "Therefore it was a 
significant part of their nuclear programme."

More extraordinary, the archives suggest that the decision to sell heavy 
water was taken simply by civil servants, mainly in the Foreign Office and 
the UK Atomic Energy Authority.

Newsnight has found no evidence that ministers in the Macmillan Government 
were ever consulted about the sale, or even told about it.

Surplus


The papers show how officials presented the sale internally as a straight 
sale from Norway to Israel
The 20 tonnes of heavy water were part of a consignment which Britain bought 
from Norway in 1956, but the UK later decided this was surplus to 
requirements.

The papers in the National Archives in London show how officials presented 
the sale internally as a straight sale from Norway to Israel. But the 
minutes reveal that the heavy water was shipped from a British port in 
Israeli ships - half in June 1959 and half a year later.

In 1960 the Daily Express first exposed the Israelis' work at Dimona and the 
fact that Israel was probably making a bomb.

When Israel asked Britain for a further five tonnes of heavy water in 1961 
the Foreign Office decided against a second transaction.

"I am quite sure we should not agree to this sale," advised Sir Hugh 
Stephenson of the Foreign Office. "The Israeli project is much too live an 
issue for us to get mixed up in it again," he wrote.

Mr McNamara, who became President Kennedy's defence secretary in 1961, has 
expressed his surprise to Newsnight that Britain didn't inform the Americans 
it had sold heavy water to Israel: "The fact that Israel was trying to 
develop a nuclear bomb should not have come as any surprise... But that 
Britain should have supplied it with heavy water was indeed a surprise to 
me.

"It's very surprising to me that we weren't told because we shared 
information about the nuclear bomb very closely with the British."

Michael Crick's report can be seen on Newsnight on Wednesday, 3 August at 
10.30pm on BBC2.

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