[Marxism] Endangered marine life
lnp3 at panix.com
Wed Aug 24 07:45:00 MDT 2005
Wave of Marine Species Extinctions Feared
By Juliet Eilperin
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, August 24, 2005; A01
BIMINI, Bahamas -- The bulldozers moved slowly at first. Picking up speed,
they pressed forward into a patch of dense mangrove trees that buckled and
splintered like twigs. As the machines moved on, the pieces drifted out to sea.
Sitting in a small motorboat a few hundred yards offshore on a mid-July
afternoon, Samuel H. Gruber -- a University of Miami professor who has
devoted more than two decades to studying the lemon sharks that breed here
-- plunged into despondency. The mangroves being ripped up to build a new
resort provide food and protection that the sharks can't get in the open
ocean, and Gruber fears the worst.
"At the end of my career, I get to document the destruction of the species
I've been documenting for 20 years," he lamented as he watched the
Gruber's sentiments have become increasingly common in recent years among a
growing number of marine biologists, who find themselves studying species
in danger of disappearing. For years, many scientists and regulators
believed the oceans were so vast there was little risk of marine species
dying out. Now, some suspect the world is on the cusp of what Ellen K.
Pikitch, executive director of the Pew Institute for Ocean Science, calls
"a gathering wave of ocean extinctions." Dozens of biologists believe the
seas have reached a tipping point, with scores of species of ocean-dwelling
fish, birds and mammals edging toward extinction. In the past 300 years,
researchers have documented the global extinction of just 21 marine species
-- and 16 have occurred since 1972.
Since the 1700s, another 112 species have died out in particular regions,
and that trend, too, has accelerated since the mid-1960s: Nearly two dozen
shark species are close to disappearing, according to the World
Conservation Union, an international coalition of government and advocacy
"It's been a slow-motion disaster," said Boris Worm, a professor at
Canada's Dalhousie University, whose 2003 study that found that 90 percent
of the top predator fish have vanished from the oceans. "It's silent and
invisible. People don't imagine this. It hasn't captured our imagination,
like the rain forest."
Many activists have focused on the plight of creatures such as the
ivory-billed woodpecker and the grizzly bear, but relatively few have taken
up the cause of marine species. Ocean dwellers are harder to track, and
some produce so many offspring they can seem invulnerable. And, in the
words of Ocean Conservancy shark fisheries expert Sonja Fordham, often
"they're not very fuzzy."
Although a number of previous extinctions involved birds and marine
mammals, it is the fate of many fish that worries experts. The large-scale
industrialization of the fishing industry after World War II, a global boom
in oceanfront development and a rise in global temperatures are all causing
fish populations to plummet.
"Extinctions happen in the ocean; the fossil record shows that marine
species have disappeared since life began in the sea," said Elliott A.
Norse, who heads the Marine Conservation Biology Institute in Redmond,
Wash. "The question is, are humans a major new force causing marine
extinctions? The evidence, and projections scientists are making, suggest
that the answer is yes."
Large-scale fishing accounts for more than half of the documented fish
extinctions in recent years, Nicholas K. Dulvy, a scientist at Lowestoft
Laboratory in England, wrote in 2003. Destruction of habitats in which fish
spawn or feed is responsible for another third. Warmer ocean temperatures
are another threat, as some fish struggle to adapt to hotter and saltier
water that can attract new competitors.
But nothing has pushed marine life to the edge of extinction more than
aggressive fishing. Aided by technology -- industrial trawlers and factory
ships deploy radar and sonar to scour the seas with precision and drag nets
the size of jumbo jets along the sea floor -- ocean fish catches tripled
between 1950 and 1992.
In some cases, fishermen have intentionally exploited species until they
died out, such as the New Zealand grayling fish and the Caribbean monk
seal; other species have been accidental victims of long lines or nets
intended for other catches. Over the past two decades, accidental by catch
alone accounted for an 89 percent decline in hammerhead sharks in the
Today, sharks, along with sturgeon and sciaenids (known as croakers or
drums for the sounds they make undersea), are among the most imperiled of
the species that spend most of their lives in the ocean.
Populations of sharks, skates and rays -- creatures known as elasmobranchs
that evolved 400 million years ago and have skeletons of cartilage, not
bone -- have difficulty rebounding because they mature slowly and produce
few offspring. Shark-fin soup, an Asian delicacy that sells for more than
$100 a bowl, has spurred intensified shark hunting in recent years.
Despite the sturgeon's fecundity, overfishing and habitat destruction have
caused that population to dive as well. Beluga sturgeon, the source of
black caviar, release 360,000 to 7 million eggs in a year, Pikitch noted,
but they have declined 90 percent in the past 20 years. Just this month,
scientists in Kazakhstan reported that they failed to find a single wild,
reproducing beluga female, leaving them with no eggs for hatcheries.
Croakers' large swim bladders -- air-holding sacs that help them maintain
buoyancy -- account for their imminent demise. Traditional Chinese medicine
prizes the bladders, and the sound they make when pressed against vibrating
muscles can reveal croakers' location to fishermen through sonar.
"They've been survivors on an evolutionary scale, but they've met their
match, and it is us," said Pikitch, who writes about sharks and sturgeon in
an upcoming book, "State of the Wild 2006."
Despite scientists' warnings, American and international authorities have
been slow to protect marine species. The only U.S. saltwater fish to make
the protected list is a ray, the smalltooth sawfish, which was added in 2003.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Fisheries Service is
charged with protecting 61 threatened or endangered marine species.
Director Bill Hogarth said his agency focuses on protecting vulnerable
populations so they will not have to be listed.
"That's our job -- to make sure species don't wind up on the endangered
species list," he said.
But conservationists said NOAA officials are reluctant to classify fish as
endangered because doing so conflicts with the agency's mission of
promoting commercial fishing.
Michael Hirshfield, chief scientist at the advocacy group Oceana, said he
has repeatedly seen government officials provide shifting estimates of how
many threatened or endangered sea turtles can acceptably die each year in
eastern scallop fisheries.
"You never get an answer to the question how many turtles would have to be
killed before you would say, 'That's not okay,' " he said.
On Bimini, 50 miles from the Florida coast, Gruber is trying unsuccessfully
to stave off the golf resort that could bring 5,000 tourists a day. The
island has just 1,600 residents but supports more than a dozen shark species.
Based on an 11-year survey starting in the mid-1990s, Gruber documented
that between 2000 and 2001, during the heaviest dredging of the ocean floor
for the resort's construction, the survival rate for lemon sharks fell 30
percent, and sharks in the dredging area had higher toxin levels. He has
yet to assess the impact of the mangrove destruction, which began on a
large scale this year.
The president of the Bimini Bay Resort and Casino, Rafael Reyes, said he
understands the concern but questions Gruber's statistics and the idea that
"sharks and development don't mix."
"We have a vested interest in making sure things remain as they are," Reyes
said, adding that he is demolishing mangroves in a place that is "basically
not a sensitive area. . . . I have to make sure the environment's pristine
because my clients are fishermen."
But Gruber remains unconvinced.
"I believed when I started the ocean was so vast there was no way you could
ever kill off the sharks or anything," he said. When it comes to being a
fish, he said, "Now you can run, but you can't hide."
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