[Marxism] Chavez sends missionaries packing
lnp3 at panix.com
Sun Nov 20 07:19:53 MST 2005
LA Times, November 20, 2005
Missionaries' Mission at Issue
Venezuela's president is kicking out evangelists he says are spying for the
U.S. Their role among the indigenous tribes has been controversial.
By Chris Kraul, Times Staff Writer
PUERTO AYACUCHO, Venezuela Earnest and God-fearing, jungle missionary
Gary Greenwood may not look like a spy for the CIA. But Venezuelan
President Hugo Chavez says the lanky young man from central Michigan is no
less than an advance scout for an imminent U.S. invasion of this South
Last month, Chavez ordered the expulsion of about 200 evangelical Baptist
missionaries from the country's Amazon rain forest. He accused them of
spying, mining, exploiting indigenous tribes and using jungle airstrips for
"imperialist penetration." Last week, the missionaries were given 90 days
to leave the zone.
Greenwood laughed off the charges and said there was no time for espionage
in Cuwa, the isolated Yanomami Indian village where he and his family lived
for four years. Although he and other missionaries acknowledged that their
primary goal was to convert Indians to Christianity, the 33-year-old said
he spent most of his days helping them: drilling wells, fixing outboard
motors and making their huts more livable.
As for the issue of U.S. intentions, Greenwood jokingly wondered why the
Pentagon would launch an invasion from the dense jungle of the Amazon,
where movement of troops or military vehicles would be problematic.
"Wouldn't the Caribbean coastline make more sense?" he asked as he made his
way out of the jungle from this Orinoco River port town.
The seemingly outlandish accusations illustrate the deterioration in
Chavez's relations with the United States, a once-close ally that still
depends on Venezuela for 12% of its oil imports. Chavez blames the
"imperialist" United States for a host of social ills in Latin America,
rhetoric that polls show is resonating in a continent impatient for change.
Some observers see the expulsion, which targeted the Florida-based New
Tribes Mission and its offshoots, as a part of a hardening attitude toward
religious groups since U.S. televangelist Pat Robertson suggested in August
that someone assassinate Chavez. The Utah-based Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-Day Saints announced last month that it had withdrawn all 219 of its
U.S. missionaries from the country because of increasing delays and
difficulty in obtaining or renewing visas.
Chavez has also sparred with the Roman Catholic Church. Retired Cardinal
Rosalio Castillo Lara, a Venezuelan who was a confidant of the late Pope
John Paul II, has accused Chavez of being increasingly autocratic.
"Chavez needs confrontation, because this allows him, among other things,
to lessen tensions within his coalition," said Javier Corrales, a political
scientist at Amherst College and a Venezuela specialist. "He is also trying
to weaken organized groups that are autonomous, especially if they are
Some anthropologists and government officials cheered Chavez's action,
saying the expulsion was a welcome conclusion to a 60-year debate in
Venezuela over whether the evangelicals threaten cultural diversity by
forcing assimilation and modernity on the tribes, even as they deliver
They say the problems posed by the missionaries are not espionage or
unbridled capitalism, but the religious and behavioral changes that the
missionaries force on tribes in exchange for material and medical help.
Those changes are destroying tribes' primitive rituals and robbing people
of what the United Nations has termed world cultural patrimony, the critics
"New Tribes activity amounts to cultural genocide for which the state has
to share responsibility," anthropologist and former Sen. Alexander Luzardo
said in an interview in Caracas, the capital.
"The state tolerated their presence in those areas too long and ceded to
them its responsibilities in health and education services too long."
But many of the estimated 45,000 indigenous people in the Amazon basin
resent the expulsion order, saying the missionaries have improved their lives.
Ingrid Turon, a city council member and member of the Yeguana indigenous
community in the village of Toki, six hours by outboard motorboat from
here, said those who oppose missionaries want to deprive indigenous people
of the advantages of modern life.
"For them, we are like animals in the zoo that people should pay to come
see, so they can charge admission, publish their books and take pictures,"
Turon said. "They want to deny us the progress that they want, that the
entire world wants."
Greenwood, the missionary, said living among the Indians as a "friend and
neighbor" gives him a different and, he said, more caring perspective
than that of the anthropologists who visit periodically to study the
communities and their customs.
"That's where we are a little bit critical of the scientists who look on
the Yanomami as a classroom project. These aren't objects these are
people," Greenwood said. "If you have a textbook approach to them, rather
than relational, the Indians suffer as a result."
Greenwood didn't deny that he wanted to teach the Indians the Bible, which
has been translated to the Yanomami language, and to show them the "way of
the Lord." Those teachings include discouraging Yanomami from taking
alcoholic or hallucinatory substances, from committing polygamy and incest,
and from engaging in inter-tribal violence.
But he insisted that none of the Indians in Cuwa were denied clothing, food
or medicine for failing to follow his religious teachings.
The son of a contractor, Greenwood is a self-described Mr. Fix-It, and much
of his work was to alter Yanomami living practices he viewed as unhealthy.
For instance, he installed concrete floors and built tables and benches for
many of the huts in Cuwa as part of an effort to dissuade the Indians from
eating on the floor, which leads to diseases such as amoebic dysentery.
But he learned not to intrude in some areas, especially politics. "We never
criticize the president. These people are very patriotic."
A relatively small part of Greenwood's day was dedicated to religion, he
said. He spent most of his time helping the Yanomami stay fed, clothed and
healthy, always a struggle in the unforgiving Amazon.
His wife, Sarah, a nurse, operated a clinic where she treated the
dysentery, malaria and snake bites suffered by the 120 people who live in
Cuwa, which in Yanomami means "you are here."
Once a month on average, Sarah Greenwood radioed for help from the medical
evacuation flight services sponsored and operated by the missionaries in
the Amazon to fly a villager to Puerto Ayacucho for emergency medical care.
The future of those medevac services is now in doubt. Chavez alleged that
the eight airstrips the missionaries built were designed to facilitate
"imperialistic penetration," a charge Greenwood denied.
"There has never been any hard evidence produced, no photos, uranium
samples or gold nuggets that you would expect to see when you have been
accused of something," Greenwood said.
Some proponents of the expulsion view it as a positive sign that the
Venezuelan government is finally assuming responsibility for the indigenous
people. Chavez has sent outboard motors, food and generators to isolated
Liborio Guarulla, the first indigenous governor of Amazonas state and a
Chavez ally, said in an interview that Chavez was defending diversity in
Venezuela. Guarulla called it a reversal of previous presidents' policy of
favoring "cultural unity," a goal that he said the missionaries brought
closer by speeding assimilation of the tribes.
"What you saw on analysis was a disconcerting picture the New Tribes
Mission imposing an apocalyptic, compulsory view on the indigenous that the
end of the world was near," Guarulla said.
He said the Chavez government was making a commitment to provide the health
and education services that missionaries had shouldered.
But anthropologist Isam Madi, who favors the presence of the missionaries,
fears that the new government impulse will fade after local elections in
December. He warned that death rates among the Yanomami and other tribes,
which have fallen with the presence of missionaries such as Sarah
Greenwood, would rise again, especially among newborns and infants, once
the missionaries left.
"Yes, there is a cultural change that comes with missionaries, but I prefer
the cultural change if it comes with a lower death rate," said Madi, who
runs a charity called Foundation for Indigenous Democracy in Santa Elena,
The Greenwoods last month changed affiliation to a Venezuelan church in
hopes of being allowed to stay. They are in Caracas, where they applied for
a visa that would permit them to go to a different Yanomami community.
"We've prayed about it and we think that's what the Lord wants, that we
keep helping these people," Gary Greewood said.
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