[Marxism] Revo cycles in Bolivia

Nestor Gorojovsky nestorgoro at fibertel.com.ar
Wed Apr 5 11:12:53 MDT 2006

Respuesta a:"Marxism Digest, Vol 30, Issue 11"
Enviado por:marxism-request at lists.econ.utah.edu
Con fecha:5 Apr 2006, a las 9:50

> In late 1781 Katari was drawn and quartered, and Spanish
> authorities held on to colonial rule until they were definitively
> overthrown in 1825. For creole elites, as well as Aymara protestors,
> the sieges of La Paz over the past few years have recalled the great
> anticolonial insurrection of two centuries ago.

Yes, first came the Kataris and Amarus.

But then, and building on (a) the Indian upheavals, which by the way 
were _by no means_ "indianist", (b) the revolutionary strength of the 
ideas of French Revolution, (c) the decission of the Creole middle 
classes to achieve equality with the Spanish elites, (d) the menaces 
to Spanish independence by the troops of Napoleon which aroused the 
great Spanish upheaval of May, 2 in Madrid, (e) the English Invasions 
to the River Plate, (f) the machinations of the Infanta Carlota 
Joaquina, who from Rio de Janeiro attempted to unite the Southern 
Viceroyalty to the realm of Brazil, and maybe (g) I am forgetting 
something, you had the _second_ wave:

the wave that came to be known as the wave of the "generation of 
Independence", the wave of the Bolivarian -before Bolivar, so to say- 
upheavals of La Paz and Chuquisaca in 1809, their defeat, the 
invasion by the revolutionary armies of the South (who decreed the 
freedom of the Indians at Tiwanaku, the very place where Evo Morales 
has restablished the link with the Indian traditions), the defeat of 
these expeditions, the insurgent guerrillas of the Republiquetas 
(there were 147 in all, only 4 chiefs remained alive!) that backed 
the effort of San Martín in Cuyo and Güemes in Salta (G. was murdered 
by a group of Spanish snipers who were let in by the Salta oligarchy, 
the class where G. had been born, because he was taking the 
revolution to the social realm and was about to give the land to the 
same gauchos who were fighting with him against the Royalists)...

Yes, a breathtaking wave that was defeated and ended with the 
greatest defeat of all, that of the 1825 "Republic".

After that, a complex history ensued which in the end finished with 
the War of the Pacific (War of Guano and Salitre, as it is known in 
Bolivia) and the Chaco War, which was essentially a war on the 
oilfields fought by Bolivia on behalf of the Standard Oil and by 
Paraguay on behalf of the Royal Dutch Shell.

The details are long to explain, but allow me to say that Bolivia 
discovered itself as some kind of a unity during the Chaco War and 
that the military generation that came to life there was the same 
generation that, in contact with other social groups, launched the 
1952 revolution.

Those interested, would profit by the reading of the pages of 
"Historia de la Nación Latinoamericana" by Jorge Abelardo Ramos 
(which is online, without footnotes).  It is in Spanish, 

Este correo lo ha enviado
Néstor Miguel Gorojovsky
nestorgoro at fibertel.com.ar
[No necesariamente es su autor]
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"La patria tiene que ser la dignidad arriba y el regocijo abajo".
Aparicio Saravia
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