[Marxism] Looming confrontation between Shiite and Kurds
lnp3 at panix.com
Tue Apr 25 07:21:18 MDT 2006
Shiite Militias Move Into Oil-Rich Kirkuk, Even as Kurds Dig In
Control of Iraqi City Has Long Been in Dispute
By Jonathan Finer
Washington Post Foreign Service
Tuesday, April 25, 2006; A16
KIRKUK, Iraq -- Hundreds of Shiite Muslim militiamen have deployed in
recent weeks to this restive city -- widely considered the most likely
flash point for an Iraqi civil war -- vowing to fight any attempt to shift
control over Kirkuk to the Kurdish-governed north, according to U.S.
commanders and diplomats, local police and politicians.
Until recently, the presence of the militias here was minimal. U.S.
officials have called the Shiite armed groups the deadliest threat to
security in much of the country. They have been blamed for hundreds of
killings during mounting sectarian violence in central and southern Iraq
since the bombing of a revered Shiite shrine in February.
The Mahdi Army, led by firebrand cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, has sent at least
two companies, each with about 120 fighters, according to Thomas Wise,
political counselor for the U.S. Embassy's Kirkuk regional office, which
has been tracking militia activity. The Badr Organization, the armed wing
of Iraq's largest Shiite political party, has also boosted its presence and
opened several offices across the region, military officers here said.
Although still in its early stages, the militia buildup "is something that
definitely concerns us, and something that we are watching very carefully,"
said Col. David R. Gray, 48, of Herscher, Ill., commander of the 101st
Airborne's 1st Brigade Combat Team, based in Kirkuk. "So far they haven't
been that violent, but does it add to the tension, putting them into this
The fate of oil-rich Kirkuk -- Iraq's third-largest city with about a
million residents and sizable ethnic Kurdish, Arab and Turkmen communities
-- has been a pivotal and divisive issue since long before the U.S.-led
invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq's constitution, endorsed in nationwide
balloting in October, calls for a referendum on the future of the region by
the end of 2007, but many key details are in dispute, such as who will be
permitted to vote.
Kurdish leaders speak openly of their intention to use force if necessary
to gain control of the city, which they consider the historical capital of
a vast Kurdish nation also extending into Iran and Turkey. During the rule
of President Saddam Hussein, Arabs brought in from elsewhere in Iraq
displaced thousands of Kurds. As many as 300,000 Kurds who were pushed out
have returned to the area, according to U.S. estimates, establishing vast
settlements on the outskirts of the city and making them its largest ethnic
community. Kurds also occupy most of the top provincial political and
Many Iraqi Arabs, both Sunni and Shiite, are adamantly opposed to
relinquishing Kirkuk, among them Sadr and his political followers.
Operating within and alongside Iraq's police and army, Shiite militias have
grown politically more powerful and boosted their membership, despite being
outlawed under Iraq's new constitution. U.S. officials have called on the
Shiite-led government, whose leading parties are tied to Badr and the Mahdi
Army, to rein them in, but few if any such steps have been taken.
Gray said the militias used the bombing of the Askariya shrine in Samarra,
north of Baghdad, as a pretext for expanding into Kirkuk, ostensibly to
protect their mosques and people. Shiite residents of Kirkuk, most of whose
families were transferred here by Hussein decades ago, are believed to make
up less than 5 percent of the local population.
For the most part, however, the militias have maintained a low profile,
U.S. military officials said. Shortly after they arrived, an Iraqi police
unit told them to stow their guns and promised that the mosques would be
protected. The militias complied. They have held at least three large but
peaceful street demonstrations, including two by Badr that attracted more
than 2,000 people. Wise said Badr is less troubled by the prospect of
Kurdish control of Kirkuk.
"We know they are here, but they are not patrolling in the streets
publicly, not yet," said Brig. Gen. Sherko Shakir, the provincial police chief.
A few hundred Shiite militiamen would be no match for the tens of thousands
of Kurdish fighters either serving in Iraqi army units in Kirkuk or
stationed outside the city in Kurdish-controlled provinces.
In a meeting here last week, Sadr's representative in the city, Abdul Karim
Khalifa, told U.S. officials that more armed loyalists were on the way and
that as many as 7,000 to 10,000 Shiite residents were prepared to fight
alongside the Mahdi Army if called upon. Legions more Shiite militiamen
would push north from Baghdad's Sadr City slum, he said, according to Wise.
"His message was essentially that any idea of Kirkuk going to the Kurds
will mean a fight," Wise said. "He said that their policy here was
different from in other places, that they are not going to attack coalition
forces because their only enemy here is the Kurds."
U.S. officials said the Shiite armed groups had not disrupted security
here, but local police and government officials, many of them Kurds, have
accused them of a wave of crimes.
"We fear the expansion of the role of Shiite armed men in Kirkuk," said
Yadgar Abdullah, commander of the police emergency operations center in
Kirkuk and an official with the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, which
administers the Kurds' decades-old militia, the pesh merga . He said the
number of kidnappings for ransom in Kirkuk has surged since the militias
Another Kurdish security official, who spoke on condition he not be named,
said Shiite militias are thought to have conducted at least five killings
of Kurds in Kirkuk and the surrounding area.
"We are dealing with anybody that carries weapons and stands against the
Iraqi government to disturb security," Abdullah said. "They will be
considered terrorists that must be fought and disarmed."
In a recent interview, Khalifa, the Sadr representative, said the Mahdi
Army -- which battled U.S. troops across southern and central Iraq in 2004
-- was responding to a power play by Kurdish politicians, whom he accused
of plotting "to marginalize us in the political process and trying to force
the Shiite Arabs out" by seizing control of Kirkuk.
Despite intense competition among Iraqi factions for control of the city,
U.S. forces here have been largely successful at limiting violence. But the
influx of Shiite militias poses a new challenge for American troops, who
have long considered the primary threat to be the Sunni Arab-led insurgency.
Last week about two dozen U.S. soldiers and an Iraqi SWAT team launched a
midnight raid in search of 12 men accused of planting a deadly roadside
bomb last month. They crammed into a dozen Humvees and, with helicopters
buzzing overhead, swarmed a quiet neighborhood in central Kirkuk, kicking
down doors and rummaging through a half-dozen houses.
The six suspects they detained, whose names were provided by local
informants, were believed to be members of the Mahdi Army, accused by U.S.
and British forces of recent attacks on coalition troops in Baghdad and
several southern cities. Photographs of Sadr were plastered on virtually
every wall of every raided home.
"I had never heard of these Mahdi guys being up here until tonight," said
Lt. John Reynolds, 23, of Ararat, Va., a platoon leader, as he rifled a
cabinet full of Shiite prayer flags, posters depicting Imam Ali, and
portraits of the youthful Sadr and his white-bearded father.
In a courtyard outside, a woman in a head scarf clutched three weeping
children to her chest. Two men arrested inside sat blindfolded and bound in
plastic handcuffs, one a soldier in the Iraqi army, the other a local
"Just what we need in a place like this," Reynolds said, "something new to
In response to the Shiite buildup, the Kurdish pesh merga militia has
boosted its already substantial presence in Kirkuk and in the city of Tuz,
where nearly 100 Kurdish gunmen arrived in recent weeks, Wise, the State
Department representative, and U.S. commanders said.
The Kurds have also increased to about 15,000 the number of private
security workers guarding offices and government buildings in the Kirkuk
region, according to a Western official here, who said they could be called
upon to fight if ethnic conflict escalated.
Tuz, a city of about 200,000 south of Kirkuk, was considered so peaceful in
January that U.S. forces transferred out almost all their soldiers, with
about 40 remaining as advisers to the Iraqi troops remaining behind.
"Now you are seeing lots of attempts by the militias to intimidate Iraqi
soldiers there," said Lt. Col. Bob Benjamin, 42, of Chicago, deputy
commander of the 1st Brigade Combat Team. "We found bombs near some
mosques. There is definitely the potential for increased violence, but the
Iraqis so far have kept the lid on the pot."
U.S. officers here say a further cause for concern is that the arrival of
the militias, who U.S. officials say receive training, arms and funding
from Iran, has coincided with an influx of Iranian sniper rifles and
roadside-bomb technology in the region. The latter includes highly lethal
Iranian-designed "shape charges" that channel the blast to punch through
armored vehicles. Such a device killed a U.S. soldier this month, the first
U.S. fatality in the city of Kirkuk since the 101st Airborne returned to
Iraq in November.
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