[Marxism] Latin American Integration
sartesian at earthlink.net
Sat Apr 29 20:08:22 MDT 2006
Walter, you need to look a little more deeply. In reality,
intra-continental trade for countries in South America has declined, is
a smaller proportion of trade than it was 5 or 10 years ago.
Overall growth has declined as has GDP/capita growth. Capital
movements are net negative.
Don't know what the number of Cuban doctors in South Africa has to do
with Latin American continental integration.
As for Bolivia's contribution of its "surplus" production-- Walter,
Bolivia's petroleum production has remained essentially flat despite the
increase in reserves, with gas reinjected.
The announcements are fine sentiments, but the results, the realization
these intentions will require a bit more than pronouncements.
All this yes! yes! yes! amounts only to salesmanship, boosterism, not
----- Original Message -----
From: "Walter Lippmann" <walterlx at earthlink.net>
To: "'Activists and scholars in Marxist tradition'"
<marxism at lists.econ.utah.edu>
Sent: Saturday, April 29, 2006 9:48 PM
Subject: RE: [Marxism] Latin American Integration
Unfortunately, this response can be summarized in the following three
little words: "no, no, no!". Intercontinental trading is certainly
moving forward and on a better basis. Nevertheless, the process is
continuing relentlessly. Tonight's ABC national television news had
a feature on the rally which is still going on (Evo spoke for about
an hour. Chavez another hour. Fidel is speaking now, so the rally's
been going on for three and a half hours out in the Plaza of the
Revolution in Havana.
There are far more Cuban doctors travelling and working around the
continent and the world than there were in the 70s, 80s, 90s. South
Africa was still under apartheid until the 90s, for one example. In
fact, there are Cuban doctors today in nearly one hundred countries.
Each one of these Cubans is demonstrating in practice what can be
done when health care is considered a right, not a commodity. Their
example has resulted in the presence of thousands of students from
all over the world being in Cuba to study medicine.
On the energy level, check these:
Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina Move Ahead on Integration
Unease in Washington over
Nicaragua Welcomes Venez Oil Pact
JOINT DECLARATION SIGNED TODAY: Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba
Presidents Hugo Chávez Frías, on behalf of the Bolivarian Republic of
Venezuela, Evo Morales Ayma, on behalf of the Republic of Bolivia and
Fidel Castro Ruz, on behalf of the Republic of Cuba, meeting in
Havana on April 28 and 29, 2006, have decided to sign the present
Agreement for the creation of the Bolivarian Alternative for the
Peoples of Our America (ALBA) and the Peoples' Trade Agreements of
our three countries.
Article 1: The governments of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela,
the Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of Cuba have decided to take
concrete steps toward implementing the process of integration, based
on the principles contained in the Joint Declaration, signed on the
December 14, 2004, between the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and
the Republic of Cuba, which are hereby accepted and embraced by the
Government of Bolivia. [Thirteen more articles follow.] then:
Actions to be developed by Bolivia in its relations with Cuba and
Venezuela within the framework of ALBA and TCP
FIRST: Bolivia will contribute the export of her mining,
agricultural, agro-industrial, livestock and industrial products as
required by Cuba or Venezuela.
SECOND: Bolivia will contribute to the energy security of our nations
with its available surplus production of hydrocarbons.
THIRD: Bolivia will not charge utility taxes on any state or mixed
venture investments formed between Bolivia and the Venezuelan and
FOURTH: Bolivia will contribute its expertise in the study of native
peoples, both in theory and in research methodology.
FIFTH: Bolivia will participate together with the governments of
Venezuela and Cuba in the exchange of experiences in the study and
recovery of ancestral knowledge in the field of natural medicine.
SIXTH: The government of Bolivia will actively participate in the
exchange of experiences in the scientific research on natural
resources and genetic agricultural and livestock patterns.
Actions to be jointly developed by Cuba and Venezuela in their
relationship with Bolivia within the framework of ALBA and TCP
FIRST: The governments of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and
the Republic of Cuba will immediately proceed to remove tariffs and
other non-tariff barriers that apply to all imports within the tariff
universe of Cuba and Venezuela whenever the apply to products
originating in the Republic of Bolivia.
SECOND: The governments of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and
the Republic of Cuba will guarantee the purchase of amounts of
oil-based products and other agricultural and industrial products
exported by Bolivia, that may not have a market as a result of the
application of a Free Trade Treaty or Treaties initiated by the
government of the United States or by European governments.
THIRD: The governments of Venezuela and Cuba offer financial,
technical and human resource collaboration to Bolivia so that a
genuine national Bolivian State airline may be established.
FOURTH: The governments of Venezuela and Cuba offer Bolivia their
collaboration in the development of sports, including facilities for
the organization and participation in sports competitions, and
training centres in both nations. Cuba offers the use of her
facilities and equipment for the control of anti-doping in the same
conditions that are offered to Cuban athletes.
FIFTH: The governments of Cuba and Venezuela, in coordination with
Bolivia, will promote actions needed to support the just Bolivian
demand for the unconditional cancellation of her foreign debt, since
it constitutes a serious obstacle to Bolivia's struggle against
poverty and inequality.
New economic and social measures may be added to this present
Agreement by the three signing Parties.
Bolivia, Venezuela and Cuba will struggle for the unity and
integration of the peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Bolivia, Venezuela and Cuba will struggle for peace and international
Bolivia joins Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas:
THE REPUBLIC OF BOLIVIA JOINS AND SIGNS THE JOINT DECLARATION SIGNED
IN HAVANA ON DECEMBER 14, 2004 BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF
STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA AND THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOLIVARIAN
REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA.
the implementation of neo-liberal plans and policies has led to the
proliferation and deepening of dependence, poverty, the pillage of
our natural resources and a state of social inequality within our
the genuine integration among the nations of Latin America and the
Caribbean is an indispensable condition for sustainable development,
alimentary security and sovereignty, in order to meet the necessities
of our peoples,
only the united actions by the Latin American and Caribbean nations,
based on principles of cooperation, complementation, mutual aid and
solidarity will allow us to preserve our independence, sovereignty
and identity, and to be successful in our opposition to unilateralism
and hegemonic aspirations, thus strengthening a Peoples' Trade
the struggle to improve the lot of human beings, friendship,
solidarity and peace among all nations of the world must constitute
the moral obligation of each and every government,
convinced of the need to promote a genuine fraternal, complementary
and human integration amongst our nations and our peoples, in the
name of the Government of the Republic of Bolivia we would like to
contribute to this process with the initiative of the Peoples' Trade
Agreements, making the goals, principles and ideological bases of
ALBA, the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of our Americas our
own, contained in the joint declaration signed in Havana on the
fourteenth day of December in the year two thousand and four, by the
President of the Council of State of the Republic of Cuba and the
President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
Given in Havana, on April 29, 2006.
Evo Morales Ayma,
President of the Republic of Bolivia.
Senor No-No argued:
Mexico has sold oil to Caribbean countries at preferential rates for
years, Cuba has sent doctors to Latin American countries throughout
the 70s, 80s, 90s-- not generally known as periods of continental
But what of the economic directions of the countries, of Latin America
as a whole? Has intra-continent trading displaced trading with the US?
Have the terms of trade improved?
What distinguishes this period? Waning of US influence? Certainly
there is resistance, but displacement and replacement are something
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