[Marxism] James Petras on Evo Morales
fajardos at ix.netcom.com
Wed Jan 4 20:45:43 MST 2006
In Peru Toledo is not widely considered an Indian, although no one
questions his Indigenous ancestry, because "Indian" is not viewed as
solely or even primarily a phenotypic or genetic category, as much as it
is a cultural one. Thus, it is possible in Peru for dark-complected
native-featured individuals to not be "Indian" and for white-skinned,
blue-eyed ones to be so (although the latter is, of course, a very
Even so, Toledo's victory is not an insignificant event, but neither is
it unique even in Peru. After Liberation there was a confederation
established in 1836, which included Peru and Bolivia (then called Upper
Peru or Alto Peru) headed by Marshall Andres de Santa Cruz, whose mother
was a Bolivian Indian of Huarina descent.
A century later, Col. Luis Sanchez Cerro seized power in a coup and
later was elected president in 1932. Phenotypically, at least, he was
as Indian an Toledo.
These facts, of course, while eliminating the notion of Toledo's
uniqueness, do however --in the span of years, if nothing else--
emphasize his rarity.
- Juan Fajardo
> As a historical aside, those of us in Mexico do like
> to point out that actually Benito Juarez, a Zapotec
> indian, was elected President in 1861.
> por el socialismo,
> Erik Toren
>>Counterpunch, January 4, 2006
>>The Bankers Can Rest Easy
>>Evo Morales: All Growl, No Claws?
>>by the mass media and his publicists as the first Indian president of the
>>Americas, which was technically correct. However, it should be noted that
>>President Chavez of Venezuela is part Indian, a former Vice president of
>>Bolivia was a (neo-liberal) Indian, Peruvian President Toledo claimed
> I>ndian origins and wore a poncho during his campaigns, and Indians in
>>Ecuador occupied key ministerial posts during the regime of the ousted
>>President Gutierrez in Ecuador (including Agriculture and Foreign Affairs).
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