[Marxism] Evo Morales sworn in
lnp3 at panix.com
Mon Jan 23 11:08:45 MST 2006
NY Times, January 23, 2006
Bolivia Indians Hail the Swearing In of One of Their Own as President
By JUAN FORERO
LA PAZ, Bolivia, Jan. 22 - Evo Morales, a Socialist protest leader and
steadfast critic of American policies in the region, was sworn in Sunday as
president of Bolivia, the first Indian to hold the position in this
landlocked country whose indigenous majority had long felt oppressed and
cut off from political power.
With tears welling in his eyes, his left fist raised and his right hand
over his heart, Mr. Morales, 46, an Aymara Indian, took the oath of office
as the leaders of 11 countries, American diplomats and the crown prince of
Spain watched from the gallery of the country's ornate 19th-century Congress.
The son of a shepherd who grew up in an adobe home in the frigid highlands,
Mr. Morales was dressed true to his anti-establishment roots, in a wool
jacket featuring white pre-Hispanic motifs on the lapels and an open-neck
shirt, but no tie.
Outside, tens of thousands of people celebrated, many of them Aymara and
Quechua Indians, tin and silver miners, coca farmers and leftists from
around the world. They blew cow horns, danced to brass bands and waved the
seven-colored wipala flag of the Andean Indian nation. By evening, Mr.
Morales and his vice president, Álvaro García, a former guerrilla leader
who spent five years in jail for rebellion, had joined them.
"This is a historic day," said Gregorio Mamani, 43, like Mr. Morales an
Aymara. "I am so happy that after so many years, we have an indigenous
president, one we can be proud of before the whole world."
In the Congress, Mr. Morales asked for a moment of silence for Inca
martyrs, for the Argentine guerrilla Che Guevara, who died in a failed
effort to start a revolution here in 1967, and "the millions of humans who
have fallen in all of Latin America." In a rambling, passionate speech that
mixed Spanish and Aymara, Mr. Morales did not veer from the populist themes
that enthralled his followers and gave him a landslide win in the election
on Dec. 18.
He criticized "neoliberal reforms," the American-backed free-market
prescriptions that are now being tested throughout the continent, for
failing to pull Bolivians out of poverty. He lamented that there were no
high-ranking Indians in the army, and he railed against the corruption of
Mr. Morales promised to "change our history" and give voice to the downtrodden.
"I want to say to you, my Indian brothers concentrated here in Bolivia,
that the 500-year campaign of resistance has not been in vain," Mr. Morales
said moments after being sworn in. "This democratic, cultural fight is part
of the fight of our ancestors, it is the continuity of the fight of Tupac
Katari, it is a continuity of the fight of Che Guevara."
But while Mr. Morales is clearly among the more anti-establishment in a
crop of leftist leaders who have recently swept to power in Latin America,
he has tempered his tone since his victory and has spoken of the need for
Bolivia to trade and build ties with other countries. "I have learned that
the president of a government has to do good business deals for his
country," Mr. Morales said Sunday.
Unlike his predecessors, Mr. Morales enters the presidency with
overwhelming good will from inside Bolivia and beyond. The economy is
solid, having grown at 4 percent in 2005, the best measure in years. The
International Monetary Fund in December wrote off the country's $231
million debt, while the deficit has shrunk significantly, thanks to higher
tax revenues and spending constraints.
Political analysts say the sound economic picture, coupled with the mandate
that propelled Mr. Morales to power, should give his government time to
Still, he has to keep in mind supporters in the crowd like Gregorio
Machicado Quispe, 48, who said, "We expect a complete change."
"The government needs to favor the poor, suffering classes," he said. "We
have to control the wealth here in Bolivia."
Gustavo Torrico Landa, 46, a congressman from Mr. Morales's Movement Toward
Socialism Party, said: "The government has to show that it has begun to
function But it's not like Evo on the 22nd becomes president and this
becomes Switzerland on the 24th."
Indeed, Bolivian officials close to Mr. Morales, including his top economic
adviser, Carlos Villegas, said in interviews that the government was
carefully considering what economic path to take.
That means determining everything from how to attend to poor farmers, a
priority for Mr. Morales, to how much foreign aid to receive from the
United States and other countries, which officials say cannot come with
Mr. Morales and other officials have also said trade is important, but have
not decided what kind of agreements should be signed. In the meantime,
Bolivia plans to ask Washington for an extension on a preferential trade
deal that ends in December, Mr. Villegas said.
"The only path for Bolivia is to open itself to the world, but under better
conditions than in the past," said Juan Ramón Quintana, another adviser to
The policies that will be most closely watched, especially by multinational
oil companies like Petrobras of Brazil and Repsol of Spain, will be in
Bolivia's huge natural gas industry. Mr. Morales plans greater control,
increasing taxes on the companies, but on Sunday he also said his
government needed help from energy experts in formulating a policy.
Mr. Morales's history as leader of the country's coca farmers, and his
campaign pledge to become a "nightmare" for the United States, has worried
American officials concerned that his presidency could lead to instability
and increased drug trafficking. On Sunday, he praised one of his closest
allies, Fidel Castro of Cuba, and he warned that the United States could
not use the fight against drugs "as an excuse" to "dominate and submit
Yet, in his speech after the swearing in, he also welcomed Thomas Shannon,
the assistant secretary of state for Western Hemisphere affairs, who was at
the inauguration. Mr. Morales had a cordial meeting on Saturday night with
Mr. Shannon and David Greenlee, the American ambassador, which will
probably lead to more talks.
"We have international support," Mr. Morales said. "There is international
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