[Marxism] Saddam urges Iraqi unity and resistance
lnp3 at panix.com
Thu Mar 16 07:32:58 MST 2006
NY Times, March 16, 2006
Hussein Urges Iraqis to Unify in War on U.S.
By EDWARD WONG
BAGHDAD, Iraq, March 15 Saddam Hussein took the witness stand on
Wednesday for his first formal testimony in his trial and delivered an
incendiary political diatribe that urged Iraqis to stop sectarian bloodshed
and to carry on the war against the Americans. The presiding judge halted
the session after Mr. Hussein, brandishing thick reading glasses,
repeatedly lambasted the court.
Mr. Hussein's nearly 40-minute speech was the most riveting element so far
in a trial that has already been punctuated by tirades from the defendants
and searing testimony from victims. Mr. Hussein marched up to the
defendants' lectern in the midafternoon, after his half brother had spent
three hours proclaiming their innocence, and read from a yellow notepad.
He had delivered outbursts before, but his sense of decorum and calm manner
on Wednesday showed he was keenly aware that this afternoon, at this hour,
the spotlight was reserved for him. He was better dressed than in previous
sessions, draped in a black suit and charcoal-gray vest with a white shirt.
His hair was combed and parted.
He went on to do exactly what Iraqi and American officials had long feared
he might use the session, televised across the Middle East, to try to
incite the Sunni-led insurgency to further violence.
"You've been great throughout history and you've been great in your
resistance to the American and Zionist invasion and its followers," he said
in a firm voice, after calling on Iraqis to stop the sectarian violence.
"You've been great in my eyes."
"You're defending your country against the occupation," he continued. "I
want you to stick to your virtues, your faith and your patience."
In sharp rejoinders, Mr. Hussein demonstrated a command of recent events in
Iraq. Told by the judge that he was accused of killing innocent people, Mr.
Hussein pointed to the scores of bodies found this week, the victims of
sectarian killings. "Just yesterday, 80 bodies of Iraqis were discovered in
Baghdad," he said. "Aren't they innocent?"
Not once did Mr. Hussein address the case at hand, in which he and seven
co-defendants are charged with jailing, torturing and executing 148 men and
boys from the Shiite village of Dujail in the 1980's. The expression on the
face of the presiding judge, Raouf Abdel-Rahman, turned from bemusement to
fatigue to fury. After a few heated exchanges, and after cutting off the
sound at least nine times, the judge barred reporters from the court for
more than 90 minutes, allowing them to return only after Mr. Hussein had
Mr. Hussein was the last of the defendants to testify, marking the mid-way
point of the trial. Judge Abdel-Rahman adjourned the court until April 5,
when Mr. Hussein may return for cross-examination. The three-judge panel
will then decide what formal charges to bring against each defendant, while
lawyers for both sides prepare for further arguments. American officials
say the trial will continue until at least late May. Even before Dujail
ends, investigative judges are expected to refer the next case against Mr.
Hussein for trial. It covers what is known as the Anfal campaign, in which
Mr. Hussein's government razed villages across Iraqi Kurdistan in the
1980's and killed about 80,000 Kurds.
Since October, when the Dujail trial opened, Iraqi and American officials
have struggled to establish the legitimacy of the Iraqi High Tribunal in
the eyes of international observers and ordinary Iraqis. Even before the
first session, the court was plagued by the assassinations of a judge and
defense lawyers; political machinations aimed at purging judges; and
attempts by the Iraqi government to shape the trial. During the trial, the
court has had to contend with disorderly defendants, ambiguous witness
testimony and a reshuffling of judges, after the first presiding judge
resigned over criticism that he was too lenient.
American and Iraqi officials have insisted that the trial be held in this
country, in defiance of a growing chorus of human rights advocates and
foreign observers who urge that it be moved to an international venue. In
any case, those critics would be difficult to win over, because most of
them oppose the death penalty, which is expected to be levied against Mr.
Hussein and his top aides.
The trial took a serious turn on Feb. 28, when the lead prosecutor
presented documents that, he argued, showed Mr. Hussein's signature on
execution orders of the 148 victims, who were rounded up in Dujail after a
failed assassination attempt on Mr. Hussein there in 1982. But Mr.
Hussein's fiery speech on Wednesday threatened to plunge the trial back
into the circuslike atmosphere that has dogged it.
Though Iraqis huddle around television sets during each court session,
there are few in this country who have not already made up their minds
about Mr. Hussein. His supporters, mostly Sunni Arabs, have been bolstered
by his display of defiance. His detractors say that same defiance shows Mr.
Hussein is unrepentant, and should have been marched to his death immediately.
"This is a farce," said Akil Mutar, 24, a worker in a cramped foodstuffs
shop downtown. "A man like Saddam shouldn't be submitted to the court, but
should instead be executed even without being questioned. Saddam, through
his speech, thinks and talks as if he's still the president."
Judge Abdel-Rahman, though firm in previous sessions, appeared to stumble a
bit on Wednesday on the tightrope he has walked between allowing the
defendants their right to speak and silencing them when they grandstand.
American and Iraqi officials say they need to find that balance because
they are anxious to demonstrate that this is not just a show trial leading
to an inevitable verdict.
Mr. Hussein's half brother Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti, who oversaw the
intelligence service during the Dujail massacre, strode into court before
11 a.m. on Wednesday in a gray robe and red-and-white head scarf, a
statement in his hand. Six of the eight defendants had testified Sunday and
Monday. Like the others, Mr. Ibrahim denied any wrongdoing and said that,
during the Dujail incident, he had "released many detainees and shook hands
He justified the trials of those rounded up from Dujail by saying they had
conspired with Iran to try to assassinate Mr. Hussein.
Mr. Ibrahim also said that documentary evidence that the prosecution had
unveiled in earlier sessions had all been forged. Court officials have not
explained whether or how they are authenticating evidence.
After a recess, Mr. Hussein glided up to the lectern.
He spoke of the Feb. 22 bombing of a revered Shiite shrine in Samarra, and
how "criminals" and not Iraqis were responsible. "This is part of a plan to
divide the people instead of carrying out jihad," he said, brown-rimmed
glasses perched on his nose. "We know the resistance against the occupation
will organize and go on and on, and the government will stumble even if
it's supported by the occupiers."
Judge Abdel-Rahman interrupted a couple of minutes later.
"This is rhetoric," he said. "What's its relation to the subject?"
"I am still the president of the state," Mr. Hussein said. "I am president."
"You were president of the state," the judge said. "Now you are a defendant."
Mr. Hussein responded, "This is what you say and this is according to you
and your conscience. As for me, I hold my oath in front of my people until
the people choose someone other than me."
He labeled the Americans "criminals who came under the pretext of weapons
of mass destruction and the pretext of democracy."
The prosecutor, Jaafar al-Mousawi, shouted a harsh warning to Mr. Hussein.
The defense lawyers and Mr. Hussein yelled back.
The judge pressed a button. Television screens across Iraq went silent. The
reporters and cameramen inside the courtroom were asked to leave.
They were allowed back in for a few final remarks. Later, in the hallway,
Mr. Mousawi told reporters that during the closed session, Mr. Hussein had
"gone on saying what he wanted to say."
Khalid al-Ansary contributed reporting for this article.
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