[Marxism] The absence of real forces [was: The low point]

Dayne Goodwin daynegoodwin at gmail.com
Sat Aug 4 05:36:35 MDT 2007

On 8/3/07, Joaquin Bustelo <jbustelo at gmail.com> wrote:
> What I'm focused on is that I feel we need a way to account for a systemic,
> "automatic" exploitation of the third world nations by imperialism through
> the mechanism of the world market itself.
   . . .

If memory serves, i think Giovanni Arrighi has done serious/academic
study along these lines -

Giovanni Arrighi
>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Giovanni Arrighi is a political-economist and sociologist, currently
Professor of Sociology at Johns Hopkins University. His work has been
translated into over fifteen languages.

Research Interests

Arrighi's main interests are in the fields of comparative and
historical sociology, world-systems analysis and economic sociology.
He has done research on processes of labor-market formation and
economic development in Southern Africa and Southern Europe, on the
origins and transformations of the world capitalist system, and on the
stratification of the global economy.

His current research focuses on the causes and consequences of
inequalities in the wealth, status and power of nations. It raises a
number of closely related questions. Why has the income gap between
the incomes of rich and poor countries persisted over the last half
century in spite of a considerable narrowing of the gaps in
industrialization and modernization? Why does the welfare of the
populations of equally rich or equally poor countries differ
significantly? Why do the chances of moving up or down in the global
hierarchy of wealth vary considerably over historical time and
geographical space?

In seeking answers to these questions Arrighi uses a variety of
approaches that combine quantitative and qualitative methods of
analysis as well as different temporal and spatial units of analysis.
At the systemic (global) level, he pays special attention to the
impact that changing conditions of global governance and world-market
formation have on developmental outcomes in different countries and
regions. At the sub-systemic level, he has so far focused on
explaining why East Asia has been the most successful region in
gaining ground in the global hierarchy of wealth. But he will also
focus on regions that have lost ground dramatically, Sub-Saharan
Africa in particular. Through this kind of systemic and sub-systemic
analysis Arrighi hopes to identify the kind of strategies that are
most likely to neutralize the negative effects on human welfare of the
polarizing tendencies of global capitalism.

Training and Academic Career

Arrighi was born in Italy in 1937. He received his Ph.D. in economics
from the University of Milan in 1960. After a few years of teaching in
Italy, he went to Africa in 1963. Arrighi first taught at the
University College of Rhodesia/Zimbabwe and then later at the
University College of Dar es Salaam, while conducting research on
African development. During this time he developed arguments about how
labor supplies and labor resistance affected the development of
colonialism and national liberation movements. It was there that he
met Immanuel Wallerstein, with whom he would later collaborate on a
number of research projects. After resturning to Italy in 1969,
Arrighi and others formed the Gruppo Gramsci in 1971. In 1979 Arrighi
joined Immanuel Wallerstein and Terence Hopkins as a professor of
sociology at the Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies,
Historical Systems, and Civilizations at SUNY Binghamton. It was
during this time that the Fernand Braudel Center became known as the
main center of world-systems analysis, attracting scholars from all
over the world.


*	The Resurgence of East Asia: 500, 150 And 50 Year Perspectives
*	Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System
*	The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times
*	Antisystemic Movements
*	Semiperipheral Development: The Politics of Southern Europe in the
Twentieth Century
*	Essays on the Political Economy of Africa
*	Geometry of Imperialism


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