[Marxism] Shaheed Bhagat Singh - Message-2

Marla Vijaya kumar marlavk at yahoo.com
Thu Oct 25 10:04:51 MDT 2007


    Bhagat  Singh on Revolution
      Peoples’ Democracy, Vol. XXV, No. 11, March 18, 2001
      (Bhagat Singh was asked during  his trial in the Lower Court  what he meant by word "Revolution." In answer to the question, he  said:)
      REVOLUTION does not necessarily  involve sanguinary strife, nor is there any place in it for individual  vendetta. It is not the cult of the bomb and the pistol. By "Revolution"  we mean that the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice,  must change. Producers or labourers, in spite of being the most necessary  element of society, are robbed by their exploiters of their labour and deprived  of their elementary rights. The peasant who grows corn for all, starves with  his family; the weavers who supplies the world market with textile fabrics, has  not enough to cover his own and his children’s bodies; masons, smiths and  carpenters who raise magnificent palaces, live like pariahs in the  slums. The capitalists and exploiters, the parasites of society, squander  millions on their whims. These terrible inequalities and forced disparity of  chances are bound to lead to chaos. This state of affair cannot last long, and it  is obvious that the present
 order of society in merry-making is on the brink of  a volcano.
      The whole edifice of this  civilisation, if not saved in time, shall crumble. A radical change, therefore,  is necessary and it is the duty of those who realise it to reorganise society  on the socialistic basis. Unless this thing is done and the exploitation of man  by man and of nations by nations is brought to an end, suffering and carnage  with which humanity is threatened today, cannot be prevented. All talk of ending  war and ushering in an era of universal peace is undisguised hypocrisy.
      By "Revolution", we  mean the ultimate establishment of an order of society which may not be  threatened by such breakdown, and in which the sovereignty of the proletariat  should be recognised and a world federation should redeem humanity from the  bondage of capitalism and misery of imperial wars.
      This is our ideal and, with this  ideology as our inspiration we have given a fair and loud enough warning.
      If, however, it goes unheeded and  the present system of government continues to be an impediment in the way of  the natural forces that are swelling up, a grim struggle will ensue involving  the overthrow of all obstacles and the establishment of the dictatorship of the  proletariat to pave the way for the consummation of the ideal of revolution.  Revolution is an inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is an imperishable birth  right of all. Labour is the real sustainer of society. The sovereignty of the  people is the ultimate destiny of the workers.
      For these ideals, and for this  faith, we shall welcome any suffering to which we may be condemned. At the  altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense, for no sacrifice  is too great for so magnificent a cause. We are content; we await the advent of  Revolution. "Long Live Revolution!"
      (The text of Bhagat Singh and  B K Dutt’s statement was read in the court by Asaf Ali on June 6, 1929.)
      ***
      SIMILARLY, one should not  interpret the word "Revolution" in its literal sense. Various  meanings and significance are attributed to this word, according to the  interests of those who use or misuse it. For the established agencies of  exploitations it conjures up a feeling of blood-stained horror. To the  revolutionaries, it is a sacred phrase. We tried to clear in our statement  before the Sessions Judge, Delhi,  in our trial in the Assembly Bomb Case, what we mean by the word  "Revolution."
      We stated therein that Revolution  did not necessarily involve sanguinary strife. It was not a cult of bomb and  pistol. They may sometimes be mere means for its achievement. No doubt they  play a prominent part in some movements, but they do not --- for that very  reason --- become one and the same thing. A rebellion is not a revolution. It  may ultimately lead to that end.
      The sense in which the word  Revolution is used in that phrase, is the spirit, the longing for a change for  the better. The people generally get accustomed to the established order of  things and begin to tremble at the very idea of a change. It is this lethargic  spirit that needs be replaced by the revolutionary spirit. Otherwise  degeneration gains the upper hand and the whole humanity is led astray by  reactionary forces. Such a state of affairs leads to stagnation and paralysis  in human progress. The spirit of Revolution should always permeate the soul of  humanity, so that the reactionary forces may not accumulate (strength) to check  its eternal onward march. Old order should change, always and ever, yielding  place to new, so that one "good" order may not corrupt the world. It  is in this sense that we raise the shout: "Long Live Revolution!"
      (From a letter written by  Bhagat Singh to magazine Modern Review that sought to ridicule the slogan  "Long Live Revolution!" The letter was later published in The Tribune  on December 24, 1929.)
      ***
      SORRY for the death of a man. But  in this man has died the representative of an institution which is so cruel,  lowly and so base that it must be abolished. In this man has died an agent of  the British authority in India---the  most tyrannical government of governments in the world.
      Sorry for the bloodshed of a  human being; but the sacrifice of individuals, at the altar of the Revolution  that will bring freedom to all and make the exploitation of man by man  impossible, is inevitable.
      Long Live The Revolution!
      (From the leaflet  "Beware, Ye Bureaucracy" that was pasted on several walls in Lahore  on December 18-19 night in 1928, after J P Saunders’ murder. The leaflet was  signed "Balraj" as commander-in-chief of the HSRA and was written by  Bhagat Singh. It was Saunders who ordered the lathicharge on an anti-Simon  Commission demonstration, that took the life of Lala Lajpat Rai.)
      ***
      LET the representatives of the  people return to their constituencies and prepare the masses for the coming  revolution. And let the government know that, while protesting against the  Public Safety and the Trades Disputes Bills and the callous murder of Lala  Lajpat Rai on behalf of the helpless Indian masses, we want to emphasise the  lesson often repeated by history that it is easy to kill the individuals, but  you cannot kill the ideas. Great empires crumbled but the ideas survived.  Bourbons and Czars fell while the revolution marched ahead triumphantly. We are  sorry to admit that we who attach so great a sanctity to human life, we who  dream of a glorious future when man will be enjoying perfect peace and full  liberty, have been forced to shed human blood. But the sacrifice of the  individuals at the altar of the great revolution that will bring freedom to  all, rendering the exploitation of man by man impossible, is inevitable.
      Long Live Revolution!
      (From the leaflet "To  Make the Deaf Hear" thrown in the Central Assembly after Bhagat Singh and  Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bombs there on April 8, 1929. This too was signed  "Balraj" and drafted by Bhagat Singh.)
      ***
      WE believe all such governments  and particularly this British government thrust upon the helpless but unwilling  Indian nation, to be no better than an organised gang of robbers and a pack of  exploiters equipped with all the means of carnage and devastation. In the name  of "law and order," they crush all those who dare to expose or oppose  them.
      We believe that imperialism is  nothing but a vast conspiracy organised with predatory motives. Imperialism is  the last stage of development of insidious exploitation of man by man and of  nation by nation. The imperialists, with a view to further their practical  designs, not only commit judicial murders through their law courts but also  organise general massacres, devastation and other horrible crimes like war.  They feel no hesitation in shooting down innocent and unarmed people who  refused to yield to their depredatory demands or to acquiesce in their ruinous  and abominable designs. Under the garb of custodians of "law and order’  they break peace, create disorder, kill people and commit all conceivable  crimes.
      We believe that freedom is an  undeniable birth right of all people, that every man has the inalienable right  of enjoying the fruits of his labour, and that every nation is indisputably the  master of its resources. If any government deprives them of these primary  rights, it is the right of the people - nay, it is their duty - to destroy that  government. Since the British government is a negation of these principles for which  we stand, it is our firm conviction that every effort made, every method  adopted to bring about a revolution and to destroy this government is morally  justified. We stand for a change, a radical change in the existing order of  affairs in social, political and economic spheres, and the complete replacement  of the existing order by a new one rendering the exploitation of man by man  impossible and thus guaranteeing full liberty to all the people in all the  spheres. We feel that unless the whole social order is changed and a  socialistic
 society is established, the whole world is in danger of a  disastrous catastrophe.
      As regards the methods, peaceful  or otherwise, to be adopted for the consummation of the revolutionary ideal,  let us declare that the choice rests with those who hold power.  Revolutionaries, by virtue of their altruistic principles, are lovers of peace  - a genuine and permanent peace based on justice and equality, not the illusory  peace resulting from cowardice and maintained at the point of bayonets. If the  revolutionaries take to bombs and pistols, it is only as a measure of terrible  necessity, as a last recourse.
      We believe that "Law and  Order is for man and not man for Law and Order"
. The sanctity of law can  be maintained only so long as it is the expression of the will of the people;  when it becomes a mere instrument in the hands of an oppressing class, it loses  its sanctity and significance, for the fundamental preliminary condition for  administration of justice is the elimination of every interest. As soon as the  law ceases to correspond to the popular social needs, it becomes the means for  perpetration of injustice and tyranny. The maintaining of such a law is nothing  but a hypocritical assertion of a special interest against the common interest.
      (From the statement of the  "undefended accused" read on May 5, 1930, in the Special Tribunal  constituted by the British government in course of the second Lahore conspiracy  case. The statement was signed by J N Sanyal,  Mahabir Singh, B K Dutt, Dr Gaya Prasad and Kundan Lal, and drafted by Bhagat  Singh.)
      ***
    
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