[Marxism] Shaheed Bhagat Singh - Message-2
Marla Vijaya kumar
marlavk at yahoo.com
Thu Oct 25 10:04:51 MDT 2007
Bhagat Singh on Revolution
Peoples Democracy, Vol. XXV, No. 11, March 18, 2001
(Bhagat Singh was asked during his trial in the Lower Court what he meant by word "Revolution." In answer to the question, he said:)
REVOLUTION does not necessarily involve sanguinary strife, nor is there any place in it for individual vendetta. It is not the cult of the bomb and the pistol. By "Revolution" we mean that the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice, must change. Producers or labourers, in spite of being the most necessary element of society, are robbed by their exploiters of their labour and deprived of their elementary rights. The peasant who grows corn for all, starves with his family; the weavers who supplies the world market with textile fabrics, has not enough to cover his own and his childrens bodies; masons, smiths and carpenters who raise magnificent palaces, live like pariahs in the slums. The capitalists and exploiters, the parasites of society, squander millions on their whims. These terrible inequalities and forced disparity of chances are bound to lead to chaos. This state of affair cannot last long, and it is obvious that the present
order of society in merry-making is on the brink of a volcano.
The whole edifice of this civilisation, if not saved in time, shall crumble. A radical change, therefore, is necessary and it is the duty of those who realise it to reorganise society on the socialistic basis. Unless this thing is done and the exploitation of man by man and of nations by nations is brought to an end, suffering and carnage with which humanity is threatened today, cannot be prevented. All talk of ending war and ushering in an era of universal peace is undisguised hypocrisy.
By "Revolution", we mean the ultimate establishment of an order of society which may not be threatened by such breakdown, and in which the sovereignty of the proletariat should be recognised and a world federation should redeem humanity from the bondage of capitalism and misery of imperial wars.
This is our ideal and, with this ideology as our inspiration we have given a fair and loud enough warning.
If, however, it goes unheeded and the present system of government continues to be an impediment in the way of the natural forces that are swelling up, a grim struggle will ensue involving the overthrow of all obstacles and the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat to pave the way for the consummation of the ideal of revolution. Revolution is an inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is an imperishable birth right of all. Labour is the real sustainer of society. The sovereignty of the people is the ultimate destiny of the workers.
For these ideals, and for this faith, we shall welcome any suffering to which we may be condemned. At the altar of this revolution we have brought our youth as incense, for no sacrifice is too great for so magnificent a cause. We are content; we await the advent of Revolution. "Long Live Revolution!"
(The text of Bhagat Singh and B K Dutts statement was read in the court by Asaf Ali on June 6, 1929.)
SIMILARLY, one should not interpret the word "Revolution" in its literal sense. Various meanings and significance are attributed to this word, according to the interests of those who use or misuse it. For the established agencies of exploitations it conjures up a feeling of blood-stained horror. To the revolutionaries, it is a sacred phrase. We tried to clear in our statement before the Sessions Judge, Delhi, in our trial in the Assembly Bomb Case, what we mean by the word "Revolution."
We stated therein that Revolution did not necessarily involve sanguinary strife. It was not a cult of bomb and pistol. They may sometimes be mere means for its achievement. No doubt they play a prominent part in some movements, but they do not --- for that very reason --- become one and the same thing. A rebellion is not a revolution. It may ultimately lead to that end.
The sense in which the word Revolution is used in that phrase, is the spirit, the longing for a change for the better. The people generally get accustomed to the established order of things and begin to tremble at the very idea of a change. It is this lethargic spirit that needs be replaced by the revolutionary spirit. Otherwise degeneration gains the upper hand and the whole humanity is led astray by reactionary forces. Such a state of affairs leads to stagnation and paralysis in human progress. The spirit of Revolution should always permeate the soul of humanity, so that the reactionary forces may not accumulate (strength) to check its eternal onward march. Old order should change, always and ever, yielding place to new, so that one "good" order may not corrupt the world. It is in this sense that we raise the shout: "Long Live Revolution!"
(From a letter written by Bhagat Singh to magazine Modern Review that sought to ridicule the slogan "Long Live Revolution!" The letter was later published in The Tribune on December 24, 1929.)
SORRY for the death of a man. But in this man has died the representative of an institution which is so cruel, lowly and so base that it must be abolished. In this man has died an agent of the British authority in India---the most tyrannical government of governments in the world.
Sorry for the bloodshed of a human being; but the sacrifice of individuals, at the altar of the Revolution that will bring freedom to all and make the exploitation of man by man impossible, is inevitable.
Long Live The Revolution!
(From the leaflet "Beware, Ye Bureaucracy" that was pasted on several walls in Lahore on December 18-19 night in 1928, after J P Saunders murder. The leaflet was signed "Balraj" as commander-in-chief of the HSRA and was written by Bhagat Singh. It was Saunders who ordered the lathicharge on an anti-Simon Commission demonstration, that took the life of Lala Lajpat Rai.)
LET the representatives of the people return to their constituencies and prepare the masses for the coming revolution. And let the government know that, while protesting against the Public Safety and the Trades Disputes Bills and the callous murder of Lala Lajpat Rai on behalf of the helpless Indian masses, we want to emphasise the lesson often repeated by history that it is easy to kill the individuals, but you cannot kill the ideas. Great empires crumbled but the ideas survived. Bourbons and Czars fell while the revolution marched ahead triumphantly. We are sorry to admit that we who attach so great a sanctity to human life, we who dream of a glorious future when man will be enjoying perfect peace and full liberty, have been forced to shed human blood. But the sacrifice of the individuals at the altar of the great revolution that will bring freedom to all, rendering the exploitation of man by man impossible, is inevitable.
Long Live Revolution!
(From the leaflet "To Make the Deaf Hear" thrown in the Central Assembly after Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bombs there on April 8, 1929. This too was signed "Balraj" and drafted by Bhagat Singh.)
WE believe all such governments and particularly this British government thrust upon the helpless but unwilling Indian nation, to be no better than an organised gang of robbers and a pack of exploiters equipped with all the means of carnage and devastation. In the name of "law and order," they crush all those who dare to expose or oppose them.
We believe that imperialism is nothing but a vast conspiracy organised with predatory motives. Imperialism is the last stage of development of insidious exploitation of man by man and of nation by nation. The imperialists, with a view to further their practical designs, not only commit judicial murders through their law courts but also organise general massacres, devastation and other horrible crimes like war. They feel no hesitation in shooting down innocent and unarmed people who refused to yield to their depredatory demands or to acquiesce in their ruinous and abominable designs. Under the garb of custodians of "law and order they break peace, create disorder, kill people and commit all conceivable crimes.
We believe that freedom is an undeniable birth right of all people, that every man has the inalienable right of enjoying the fruits of his labour, and that every nation is indisputably the master of its resources. If any government deprives them of these primary rights, it is the right of the people - nay, it is their duty - to destroy that government. Since the British government is a negation of these principles for which we stand, it is our firm conviction that every effort made, every method adopted to bring about a revolution and to destroy this government is morally justified. We stand for a change, a radical change in the existing order of affairs in social, political and economic spheres, and the complete replacement of the existing order by a new one rendering the exploitation of man by man impossible and thus guaranteeing full liberty to all the people in all the spheres. We feel that unless the whole social order is changed and a socialistic
society is established, the whole world is in danger of a disastrous catastrophe.
As regards the methods, peaceful or otherwise, to be adopted for the consummation of the revolutionary ideal, let us declare that the choice rests with those who hold power. Revolutionaries, by virtue of their altruistic principles, are lovers of peace - a genuine and permanent peace based on justice and equality, not the illusory peace resulting from cowardice and maintained at the point of bayonets. If the revolutionaries take to bombs and pistols, it is only as a measure of terrible necessity, as a last recourse.
We believe that "Law and Order is for man and not man for Law and Order"
. The sanctity of law can be maintained only so long as it is the expression of the will of the people; when it becomes a mere instrument in the hands of an oppressing class, it loses its sanctity and significance, for the fundamental preliminary condition for administration of justice is the elimination of every interest. As soon as the law ceases to correspond to the popular social needs, it becomes the means for perpetration of injustice and tyranny. The maintaining of such a law is nothing but a hypocritical assertion of a special interest against the common interest.
(From the statement of the "undefended accused" read on May 5, 1930, in the Special Tribunal constituted by the British government in course of the second Lahore conspiracy case. The statement was signed by J N Sanyal, Mahabir Singh, B K Dutt, Dr Gaya Prasad and Kundan Lal, and drafted by Bhagat Singh.)
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