[Marxism] Iran Makes the Sciences A Part of Its Revolution

Eli Stephens elishastephens at hotmail.com
Thu Jun 5 23:40:13 MDT 2008

By Thomas Erdbrink
Washington Post Foreign Service
Friday, June 6, 2008; A01

TEHRAN -- As Burton Richter, an American Nobel laureate in physics, entered the 
main auditorium of Tehran's prestigious Sharif University, hundreds of students 
rose to give him a loud and lengthy ovation. But Richter, wearing a white suit 
and leaning on a cane, said he was the one who should be awed.

"The students here are very impressive," Richter said, lauding the high level of 
education at Sharif. "I expect to hear a lot more from you all in the future."

The students, young men and women with laptops and smart briefcases, giggled in 
their seats. A woman took pictures of the Stanford professor emeritus, whose 
visit last month was part of a privately funded academic program run by the 
National Academies of the United States and universities in Iran.

"Mr. Richter is an example for us," explained Ismael Hosseini, a 23-year-old 
electrical engineering student who had managed to get a seat near the stage. 
"But soon I will be able to listen to an Iranian scientist who has received a 
Nobel Prize for his or her work," he said. "We are all studying and researching 
hard to receive this honor."

Iran's determination to develop what it says is a nuclear energy program is part 
of a broader effort to promote technological self-sufficiency and to see Iran 
recognized as one of the world's most advanced nations. The country's leaders, 
who three decades ago wrested the government away from a ruler they saw as 
overly dependent on the West, invest heavily in scientific and industrial 
achievement, but critics say government backing is sometimes erratic, leaving 
Iran's technological promise unfulfilled.

Still, Iranian scientists claim breakthroughs in nanotechnology, biological 
researchers are pushing the boundaries of stem cell research and the country's 
car industry produces more cars than anywhere else in the region.

"Iran wants to join the group of countries that want to know about the biggest 
things, like space," Richter said to the students during his speech at Sharif 
University, which draws many of the country's best students. Every year, 1.5 
million young Iranians take a national university entrance exam, or "concours." 
Of the 500,000 who pass and are entitled to free higher education, only the top 
800 can attend Sharif, considered Iran's MIT.

At Sharif, students work in fields including aerospace and nanotechnology. While 
some end up advancing Iran's nuclear program or finding work in other 
technological fields in Iran, many, especially PhD candidates, are lured by 
employers or universities in Australia, Canada and the United States.

"Our visitors are flabbergasted when they come to our modern laboratories and 
see women PhD students. Often they had a completely different image of Iran, not 
as an academic country," said Abdolhassan Vafai, a professor at Sharif. "Here, 
we educate our students to solve problems that affect all humanity, like hunger, 
global warming and water shortages."

But in Iran, scientists are also expected to serve ideological goals. Iran's 
leaders hold up their inventions as proof that the country's 1979 revolution has 
made it independent and self-sufficient.

When President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad opened Iran's first space center in February, 
he issued a launch order sending a test missile into space and proclaimed that 
"no power can overcome Iran's will."

Iran hopes to launch its second satellite -- the first was launched commercially 
by a Russian company -- within weeks, using a locally made rocket. Iran's 
advances in this field cannot be independently verified.

Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, has encouraged scientific 
breakthroughs for geopolitical reasons. "If you are in pursuit of a science, you 
bring dissatisfaction and displeasure to the enemy of the revolution's 
aspirations," Khamenei said during a visit to Iran's stem cell research center 
in 2006.

In 1979, revolutionaries accused Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the country's 
U.S.-backed autocrat, of having made Iran dependent on other states for 
technology, military equipment and industrial hardware.

During the Iran-Iraq war of the 1980s, the country faced an enemy supported by 
superpowers that isolated Iran. Squadrons of U.S.-made F-4 fighter jets were 
grounded because of U.S. sanctions that barred Iran's access to spare parts.

"In the war, the whole world was against us. We learned that we had to stand on 
our own two feet," said Manoucher Manteqi, chief executive of Iran's largest 
carmaker, Iran Khodro. The state-run company produced more than 600,000 cars in 
2007 and has no equivalent in the Middle East. India's Tata Motors produced just 
over 400,000 vehicles in 2007; French automaker Peugeot Citroen -- with which 
Iran Khodro has a joint venture -- makes about 3.5 million vehicles a year 

"The sanctions forced us to use our full potential. We are now commercializing 
what we learned back then," explained Manteqi, who wore a worker's coat to show 
unity with his assembly-line colleagues during an interview in March.

Iranians worry about the impact of U.N. sanctions against Iran over its nuclear 
program. "They will lead to limitations in our cooperation with other 
countries," Manteqi said. "But they also mean that others cannot use Iran's 
potential, like foreign carmakers we want to cooperate with. Iran needs 1.5 
million cars a year -- this is an interesting market. Under sanctions, we might 
have to do things ourselves, but we are used to that."

"If the West refuses Iran nuclear technology, it means they might pressure us in 
the future over development of other technologies," said Nasser Aghdami of the 
Royan stem cell institute in Tehran. The state-sponsored facility does research 
on human embryonic stem cells. "Our religious authorities have decided that we 
can do research on fetuses until 4 months old," he explained.

"We exchange information with scientists in the U.S. I feel science should be 
above politics," Aghdami said.

But when he wanted to order a new ultracentrifuge machine needed for research, 
he found that his foreign counterparts weren't allowed to send the equipment to 
Iran because it was considered "dual use" -- technology that could be applied to 
Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear centrifuges that Iran produces cannot be 
used for stem cell research.

"This shows that we still need a lot of willpower to achieve our goal," Aghdami 
said. Iranian stem cell scientists are already involved in efforts to reprogram 
skin cells into embryonic cells in order to bypass ethical problems, he said. 
"Only three other countries -- Germany, the U.S. and Japan -- are involved in 
this. We are proud to compete with the best."

Persia, as Iran was known until the 19th century, made discoveries in the 
natural sciences, mathematics and philosophy. After the Arab-Islamic invasion in 
the 7th century, Persian scientists developed medical alcohol and made important 
contributions in algebra and chemistry.

"Everybody wants their kids to study here. Step into a taxi in Tehran and the 
driver will tell you this is his second job to support his kids in university," 
said Hashem Rafii-Tabar, a professor at a research institute in Tehran. He 
returned to his homeland six years ago to set up a department for nanotechnology 
for a consortium of nine Iranian universities. His students are making 
conceptual designs for nanodevices that can identify and destroy individual 
cancer cells.

"We have high ambitions," Rafii-Tabar explained. "Already we are the number one 
in nanotechnology in the region, maybe only equaled by Israel. Iran produces 
more papers on this subject in international scientific indexed publications 
than any other country in the region. However, Iran has not yet submitted 
patents, official new inventions. Its regional competitors have also not reached 
this stage."

The Iranian government supports the nanotechnology project. Last month a 
nanotechnology supercomputing center was opened, financed by the government.

Rafii-Tabar observed that science projects in Iran often take off with a flying 
start but later run aground. "When a new field of research comes to Iran, it 
incubates, goes on to be taught at the famous universities, but revolutions and 
changes of government have stopped projects in the past," he said. "We used to 
be big in IT, but we still need foreign software for our ATM machines."

At Iran Khodro's factory west of Tehran, the day shift had just ended. But 
Manteqi, the CEO, was not leaving. "I should work harder than everyone else, 
because many things still go wrong," he explained with a smile. "As the late 
Ayatollah Khomeini said: 'If we want it, we can do it.' We have more experts and 
professionals in Iran than in any of the neighboring countries. If they are 
managed properly, we can fulfill our ambitions. Iran can do this in cooperation 
with the rest of the world, but, if needed, we can also do it by ourselves."

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