[Marxism] [Fwd: [A-List] Moldova]

Nestor Gorojovsky nmgoro at gmail.com
Thu Apr 9 09:20:20 MDT 2009

I am quite ignorant of what the hell is taking place in Moldava now, but 
I find this report on the situation there far more down-to-earth than 
the pseudo-Trotskyist communiqué that has been sent to this list. Sorry 
for cross-posting. Hope it won´t start a stupid skirmish on Tralinism 
and Stotkism here, but foster a deeper understanding of what is taking 
place in Central Eastern Europe.

-------- Mensaje original --------
Asunto: [A-List] Moldova
Fecha: Thu, 9 Apr 2009 05:10:28 -0700
De: c b <cb31450 at gmail.com>
Responder a: The A-List <a-list at lists.econ.utah.edu>
Para: a-list at lists.econ.utah.edu

Post-independence politics (1991-2009)
On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalizing
prices, which resulted in huge inflation. From 1992 to 2001, the young
country suffered its worst economic crisis, leaving most of the
population below the poverty line.[citation needed] In 1993, a
national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced to replace the
Soviet ruble. The end of the planned economy also meant that
industrial enterprises would have to buy supplies and sell their goods
by themselves, and most of the management was unprepared for such a
change.[citation needed] Moldova's industry, especially machine
building, became all but defunct, and unemployment
skyrocketed.[citation needed] The economic fortunes of Moldova began
to change in 2001; since then the country has seen a steady annual
growth of between 5% and 10%. The early 2000s also saw a considerable
growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally)
in Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus,
  Turkey, and other countries, in addition to work in Russia.[citation
needed] Remittances from Moldovans abroad account for almost 38% of
Moldova's GDP, the second-highest percentage in the world.[41]
Officially, Moldova's annual GDP is on the order of $1,000 per capita;
however, a significant part of the economy goes unregistered due to
corruption.[citation needed]
The pro-nationalist governments of prime-ministers Mircea Druc (May
25, 1990 - May 28, 1991), and Valeriu Muravschi (May 28, 1991 - July
1, 1992), were followed one year after independence by a more moderate
government of Andrei Sangheli, which saw the decline of the
pro-Romanian nationalist sentiment.[42] After the 1994 elections,
Moldovan Parliament adopted measures that distanced Moldova from
Romania.[36] The new Moldovan Constitution also provided for autonomy
for Transnistria and Gagauzia. On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of
Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and
in 1995 it was constituted.
After winning the presidential elections of 1996, on January 15, 1997,
Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist
Party in 1989-91, became the country's second president. After the
legislative elections on March 22, 1998, an Alliance for Democracy and
Reform was formed by non-Communist parties. However, the activity of
new government of prime-minister Ion Ciubuc (January 24, 1997-
February 1, 1999) was marked by chronic political instability, which
prevented a coherent reform program.[36] The 1998 financial crisis in
Russia, Moldova's main economic partner at the time, produced an
economic crisis in the country. The standard of living plunged, with
75% of population living below the poverty line, while the economic
disaster caused 600,000 people to eventually leave the country.[36]
New governments were formed by Ion Sturza (February 19 - November 9,
1999) and Dumitru Braghiş (December 21, 1999 - April 19, 2001). On
July 21, 2000, the Parliament adopted an amendment to the Constitution
that transformed Moldova from a presidential to a parliamentary
republic, in which the president is elected by 3/5 of the votes in the
parliament, and no longer directly by the people.[36]
Only 3 of the 31 political parties passed the 6% threshold of the
February 25, 2001 early elections. Winning 49.9% of the vote, the
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova gained 71 of the 101
MPs, and on April 4, 2001, elected Vladimir Voronin as the country's
third president. A new government was formed on April 19, 2001 by
Vasile Tarlev. The country became the first post-Soviet state where a
non-reformed Communist Party returned to power.[36] In March-April
2002, in Chişinău, several mass protests took place against the plans
of the government to fulfill its electoral promise and introduce
Russian as the second state language along with its compulsory study
in schools.[36] The government mainly renounced these plans.[citation
needed] Relationship between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in
November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the
Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept
due to Western and
  internal political pressure,[43] since it stipulated a 20-year
Russian military presence in Moldova. The federalization plan for
Moldova would have also turned Transnistria and Gagauzia into a
blocking minority over all major policy matters of Moldova. As of
2006, approximately 1,200 of the 14th army personnel remain stationed
in Transnistria, guarding a large ammunitions depot at Colbasna. In
the last years, negotiations between the Transnistrian and Moldovan
leaders have been going on under the mediation of the OSCE, Russia,
and Ukraine; lately observers from the European Union and the United
States have become involved, creating a 5+2 format.
In the wake of the November 2003 deadlock with Russia, a series of
shifts in the external policy of Moldova occurred, targeted at
rapprochement with the European Union. In the context of the EU's
expansion to the east, Moldova wants to sign a Stability an
Association Agreement. It implemented its first three-year Action Plan
within the framework of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) of the
In the March 2005 elections, the Party of the Communists (PCRM) won
46% of the vote, (56 of the 101 seats in the Parliament), Democratic
Moldova Block (BMD) won 28.5% of the vote (34 MPs), and the Christian
Democratic People Party (PPCD) won 9.1% (11 MPs). On April 4, 2005,
Vladimir Voronin was re-elected as country's president, supported by a
part of the opposition, and on April 8, Vasile Tarlev was again
charged as head of government.[36] On March 31, 2008, Vasile Tarlev
was replaced by Zinaida Greceanîi as head of the government.
[edit] 2009 election protests
Main article: 2009 Chişinău riots
Following the general elections on April 5, 2009 the Communist Party
won 50% of the votes, followed by the Liberal Party with 13% of the
votes and the Liberal Democratic Party with 12%. The opposition
leaders have protested against the outcome calling it fraudulent and
demanded a repeated election.
A report by OSCE said Sunday's vote was "generally free and fair".
However, one member of the OSCE observation team questioned that
conclusion: Baroness Emma Nicholson said that she and a number of
other team members feel that there had been some manipulation, but
they were unable to find any proof.[46]
Opposition leaders have organized a protest demonstration on April 6
and 7, 2009, with thousands of mainly young protesters in Chişinău,
accusing the Communist government of electoral fraud. The
demonstration has spun out of control and turned into a riot when a
crowd of about 10,000 attacked the parliament building and broke into
the presidential offices, looting and setting them on fire.[47] The
violence on both sides (demonstrators and police) was condemned by the
OSCE.[48] Government officials, including the President, Vladimir
Voronin have called the rioting a coup d'etat attempt and have accused
Romanian nationalists of organizing it.[46]

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