[Marxism] Taliban Exploit Class Rifts to Gain Ground in Pakistan
lnp3 at panix.com
Fri Apr 17 06:37:05 MDT 2009
NY Times, April 17, 2009
Taliban Exploit Class Rifts to Gain Ground in Pakistan
By JANE PERLEZ and PIR ZUBAIR SHAH
PESHAWAR, Pakistan — The Taliban have advanced deeper into Pakistan by
engineering a class revolt that exploits profound fissures between a
small group of wealthy landlords and their landless tenants, according
to government officials and analysts here.
The strategy cleared a path to power for the Taliban in the Swat Valley,
where the government allowed Islamic law to be imposed this week, and it
carries broad dangers for the rest of Pakistan, particularly the
militants’ main goal, the populous heartland of Punjab Province.
In Swat, accounts from those who have fled now make clear that the
Taliban seized control by pushing out about four dozen landlords who
held the most power.
To do so, the militants organized peasants into armed gangs that became
their shock troops, the residents, government officials and analysts said.
The approach allowed the Taliban to offer economic spoils to people
frustrated with lax and corrupt government even as the militants imposed
a strict form of Islam through terror and intimidation.
“This was a bloody revolution in Swat,” said a senior Pakistani official
who oversees Swat, speaking on the condition of anonymity for fear of
retaliation by the Taliban. “I wouldn’t be surprised if it sweeps the
established order of Pakistan.”
The Taliban’s ability to exploit class divisions adds a new dimension to
the insurgency and is raising alarm about the risks to Pakistan, which
remains largely feudal.
Unlike India after independence in 1947, Pakistan maintained a narrow
landed upper class that kept its vast holdings while its workers
remained subservient, the officials and analysts said. Successive
Pakistani governments have since failed to provide land reform and even
the most basic forms of education and health care. Avenues to
advancement for the vast majority of rural poor do not exist.
Analysts and other government officials warn that the strategy executed
in Swat is easily transferable to Punjab, saying that the province,
where militant groups are already showing strength, is ripe for the same
social upheavals that have convulsed Swat and the tribal areas.
Mahboob Mahmood, a Pakistani-American lawyer and former classmate of
President Obama’s, said, “The people of Pakistan are psychologically
ready for a revolution.”
Sunni militancy is taking advantage of deep class divisions that have
long festered in Pakistan, he said. “The militants, for their part, are
promising more than just proscriptions on music and schooling,” he said.
“They are also promising Islamic justice, effective government and
The Taliban strategy in Swat, an area of 1.3 million people with fertile
orchards, vast plots of timber and valuable emerald mines, unfolded in
stages over five years, analysts said.
The momentum of the insurgency built in the past two years, when the
Taliban, reinforced by seasoned fighters from the tribal areas with
links to Al Qaeda, fought the Pakistani Army to a standstill, said a
Pakistani intelligence agent who works in the Swat region.
The insurgents struck at any competing point of power: landlords and
elected leaders — who were usually the same people — and an underpaid
and unmotivated police force, said Khadim Hussain, a linguistics and
communications professor at Bahria University in Islamabad, the capital.
At the same time, the Taliban exploited the resentments of the landless
tenants, particularly the fact that they had many unresolved cases
against their bosses in a slow-moving and corrupt justice system, Mr.
Hussain and residents who fled the area said.
Their grievances were stoked by a young militant, Maulana Fazlullah, who
set up an FM radio station in 2004 to appeal to the disenfranchised. The
broadcasts featured easy-to-understand examples using goats, cows, milk
and grass. By 2006, Mr. Fazlullah had formed a ragtag force of landless
peasants armed by the Taliban, said Mr. Hussain and former residents of
At first, the pressure on the landlords was subtle. One landowner was
pressed to take his son out of an English-speaking school offensive to
the Taliban. Others were forced to make donations to the Taliban.
Then, in late 2007, Shujaat Ali Khan, the richest of the landowners, his
brothers and his son, Jamal Nasir, the mayor of Swat, became targets.
After Shujaat Ali Khan, a senior politician in the Pakistan Muslim
League-Q, narrowly missed being killed by a roadside bomb, he fled to
London. A brother, Fateh Ali Mohammed, a former senator, left, too, and
now lives in Islamabad. Mr. Nasir also fled.
Later, the Taliban published a “most wanted” list of 43 prominent names,
said Muhammad Sher Khan, a landlord who is a politician with the
Pakistan Peoples Party, and whose name was on the list. All those named
were ordered to present themselves to the Taliban courts or risk being
killed, he said. “When you know that they will hang and kill you, how
will you dare go back there?” Mr. Khan, hiding in Punjab, said in a
telephone interview. “Being on the list meant ‘Don’t come back to Swat.’ ”
One of the main enforcers of the new order was Ibn-e-Amin, a Taliban
commander from the same area as the landowners, called Matta. The fact
that Mr. Amin came from Matta, and knew who was who there, put even more
pressure on the landowners, Mr. Hussain said.
According to Pakistani news reports, Mr. Amin was arrested in August
2004 on suspicion of having links to Al Qaeda and was released in
November 2006. Another Pakistani intelligence agent said Mr. Amin often
visited a madrasa in North Waziristan, the stronghold of Al Qaeda in the
tribal areas, where he apparently received guidance.
Each time the landlords fled, their tenants were rewarded. They were
encouraged to cut down the orchard trees and sell the wood for their own
profit, the former residents said. Or they were told to pay the rent to
the Taliban instead of their now absentee bosses.
Two dormant emerald mines have reopened under Taliban control. The
militants have announced that they will receive one-third of the revenues.
Since the Taliban fought the military to a truce in Swat in February,
the militants have deepened their approach and made clear who is in charge.
When provincial bureaucrats visit Mingora, Swat’s capital, they must now
follow the Taliban’s orders and sit on the floor, surrounded by Taliban
bearing weapons, and in some cases wearing suicide bomber vests, the
senior provincial official said.
In many areas of Swat the Taliban have demanded that each family give up
one son for training as a Taliban fighter, said Mohammad Amad, executive
director of a nongovernmental group, the Initiative for Development and
A landlord who fled with his family last year said he received a
chilling message last week. His tenants called him in Peshawar, the
capital of North-West Frontier Province, which includes Swat, to tell
him his huge house was being demolished, he said in an interview here.
The most crushing news was about his finances. He had sold his fruit
crop in advance, though at a quarter of last year’s price. But even that
smaller yield would not be his, his tenants said, relaying the Taliban
message. The buyer had been ordered to give the money to the Taliban
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