[Marxism] John Hope Franklin
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Thu Mar 26 07:16:29 MDT 2009
NY Times, March 26, 2009
John Hope Franklin, Scholar of African-American History, Is Dead at 94
By ANDREW L. YARROW
John Hope Franklin, a prolific scholar of African-American history who
profoundly influenced thinking about slavery and Reconstruction while
helping to further the civil rights struggle, died Wednesday in Durham,
N.C. He was 94.
A spokeswoman for Duke University, where Dr. Franklin taught, said he
died of congestive heart failure at the university’s hospital.
During a career of scholarship, teaching and advocacy that spanned more
than 70 years, Dr. Franklin was deeply involved in the painful debates
that helped reshape America’s racial identity, working with the Rev. Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr., W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall and other
major civil rights figures of the 20th century.
“I will always think of John Hope as the historian of the South who
grasped the complexity of Southern public life as shaped by the horror
of personal slavery,” said Nell Irvin Painter, the Princeton University
historian. “Franklin was the first great American historian to reckon
the price owed in violence, autocracy and militarism.”
It was a theme Dr. Franklin wrestled with into his last years. In an
article in The Atlantic Monthly in 2007, he wrote, “If the American idea
was to fight every war from the beginning of colonization to the middle
of the 20th century with Jim Crow armed forces, in the belief that this
would promote the American idea of justice and equality, then the
American idea was an unmitigated disaster and a denial of the very
principles that this country claimed as its rightful heritage.”
Dr. Franklin combined idealism with rigorous research, producing such
classic works as “From Slavery to Freedom: A History of
African-Americans,” first published in 1947. Considered one of the
definitive historical surveys of the American black experience, it has
sold more than three million copies and has been translated into
Japanese, German, French, Chinese and other languages.
Robert W. Fogel, a Nobel Prize-winning economist at the University of
Chicago, called it “a landmark in the interpretation of American
Dr. Franklin also taught at some of the nation’s leading institutions,
including Harvard and the University of Chicago in addition to Duke, and
as a scholar he personally broke several racial barriers.
He often argued that historians have an important role in shaping
policy, a position he put into practice when he worked with Marshall’s
team of lawyers in their effort to strike down segregation in the
landmark 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education, which outlawed the
doctrine of “separate but equal” in the nation’s public schools.
“Using the findings of the historians,” Dr. Franklin recalled in a 1974
lecture, “the lawyers argued that the history of segregation laws
reveals that their main purpose was to organize the community upon the
basis of a superior white and an inferior Negro caste.”
Dr. Franklin also participated in the 1965 march from Selma to
Montgomery, Ala., with Dr. King.
“One might argue that the historian is the conscience of the nation, if
honesty and consistency are factors that nurture the conscience,” Dr.
Franklin said. Still, he warned, if scholars engage in advocacy as well
as scholarship they must “make it clear which activity they are engaging
in at any given time.”
President Bill Clinton, in awarding him the Medal of Freedom, the
nation’s highest civilian honor, in 1995, said Dr. Franklin had never
confused “his role as an advocate with his role as a scholar,” adding
that he had held “to the conviction that integration is a national
Yet even on so august an occasion, Dr. Franklin could not escape the
legacy of discrimination. In a talk he gave in North Carolina 10 years
later, he recalled that on the evening before he received the medal at
the White House, a woman at a Washington club asked him to fetch her
coat, mistaking him for an attendant, and that a man at his hotel had
handed him car keys and told him to get his car.
Dr. Franklin’s prestige led Mr. Clinton to select him in 1997 to head
the Advisory Board to the President’s Initiative on Race, which was
formed to promote dialogue about the country’s race problems.
The panel, however, drew criticism. White supremacists protested at some
of its forums, and at others American Indians and other minorities
complained that they were being left out of the process. A group of
conservative scholars repudiated the panel and formed their own.
And when Dr. Franklin’s group finally issued its report after 15 months,
the document was criticized as, in one disillusioned scholar’s words, “a
list of platitudes.”
The controversy did little to dim Dr. Franklin’s standing as a
groundbreaking historian, however. He was the first African-American
president of the American Historical Association; the first black
department chairman at a predominantly white institution, Brooklyn
College; the first black professor to hold an endowed chair at Duke; the
first black chairman of the University of Chicago’s history department;
and the first African-American to present a paper at the segregated
Southern Historical Association, one of many groups that later elected
him its president.
John Hope Franklin was born on Jan. 2, 1915, in Rentiesville, Okla., the
son of Buck Colbert Franklin, a lawyer, and Molly Parker Franklin, an
elementary school teacher. His parents had moved to Rentiesville, an
all-black town, after his father was not allowed to practice law in
In the 1920s, the family moved to Tulsa, and at age 11 he was taken to
hear the great civil rights leader W. E. B. Du Bois, with whom Dr.
Franklin later became friends.
His youth was marked by frequent brushes with racism. He was forced off
an all-white train and made to sit in a segregated section of the Tulsa
opera house. He watched black neighborhoods of Tulsa — including the one
where his father had his office — being burned during the infamous 1921
race riot, and he was barred from admission to the University of Oklahoma.
Instead, Dr. Franklin attended historically black Fisk University in
Nashville, receiving his B.A. in 1935. There he met Aurelia E.
Whittington, who would become his wife, and sometime editor, of almost
60 years. They had one son, John Whittington Franklin, who survives him.
Mrs. Franklin died in 1999.
In 1997, Dr. Franklin and his son edited an autobiography of his father,
Buck Franklin. The book told the tale of free blacks in the Southwestern
Indian territories in the late 1800s. Buck Franklin’s father, a former
slave owned by Indians, became a cowboy and rancher, while Buck, who
taught himself law by mail, was an advocate of black pride and nonviolence.
Before graduating from Fisk, Dr. Franklin considered following his
father into law but was persuaded by a white professor, Ted Currier, to
make history his field. Professor Currier was said to have borrowed $500
to help Dr. Franklin pursue graduate studies at Harvard. There, Dr.
Franklin later recalled, he felt the isolation of being one of only a
handful of blacks on campus. He received his master’s degree in 1936 and
his Ph.D. in 1941.
Two years later he published his first book, “The Free Negro in North
Carolina, 1790-1860,” which explored slaveholders’ hatred and fear of
the quarter-million free blacks in the antebellum South. Almost 20 other
books followed, either written or edited by Dr. Franklin.
In “The Militant South, 1800-1861” (1956), he described Southern whites’
“martial spirit” and “will to fight,” which he said gave the
pre-Civil-War South its reputation for violence. He approvingly quoted
Tocqueville’s observation that, because of slavery, “the citizen of the
Southern states becomes a sort of domestic dictator from infancy.”
In “Reconstruction After the Civil War” (1961), he wrote that the end of
Reconstruction reforms left “the South more than ever attached to the
values and outlook that had shaped its history.” He lamented that “in
the postwar years, the Union had not made the achievements of the war a
foundation for the healthy advancement of the political, social and
economic life” of the nation.
“The Emancipation Proclamation” (1963), written a century after the
proclamation was issued, examined how it evolved in Lincoln’s mind and
its impact on the Civil War and later generations. Dr. Franklin
concluded hopefully, “Perhaps in its second century, it would give real
meaning and purpose to the Declaration of Independence.”
And in “The Color Line: Legacy for the 21st Century” (1993) he argued
that race would remain America’s great problem in the 21st century.
Despite his acute awareness of the South’s troubled racial history, Dr.
Franklin was often angrier about Northern racism and frequently defended
his adopted home state, North Carolina.
His major biographical project was a 1985 study of George Washington
Williams, a self-educated black Civil War veteran and author of a
1,000-page 1882 history of blacks in America from 1619 to 1880. He said
he spent nearly 40 years of intermittent research on the project,
calling Williams “one of the small heroes of the world.”
Dr. Franklin’s first passion was teaching, and he continued to log
classroom time despite his increasing prominence. His teaching career
began at Fisk in 1936 and continued over the next 20 years at St.
Augustine’s College in Raleigh, N.C., North Carolina College in Durham
and Howard University in Washington.
As his first books drew national notice, Dr. Franklin left the world of
historically black colleges and went to Brooklyn College, where from
1956 to 1964 he served as chairman of what had been an all-white department.
“Having John Hope Franklin at Brooklyn College in the 1960’s was like
having a real star in our midst,” said Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat
of California, who was a student of Dr. Franklin’s. “Students who were
lucky enough to get into his class bragged about him from morning until
Dr. Franklin later taught at the University of Chicago before returning
to North Carolina in 1982 to teach at Duke and at the Duke Law School.
Dr. Franklin was also a Fulbright professor in Australia and had
teaching stints in China and Zimbabwe. He taught at Cambridge University
in England; Harvard; Cornell; the University of Wisconsin; the
University of Hawaii; the University of California, Berkeley; and other
institutions. Since 1992, he had been James B. Duke professor emeritus
of history at Duke. A John Hope Franklin Research Center was established
in his honor at Duke.
At his home in Durham, Dr. Franklin continued a lifelong hobby of
cultivating hundreds of orchids; one species was named for him, the
Phalaenopsis John Hope Franklin.
His honors, awards, and professional and civic affiliations were so
numerous as to fill several single-spaced pages of a long curriculum
vitae. He received more than 100 honorary degrees.
In 2006, he received the John W. Kluge Prize for the Study of Humanities
in a ceremony at the Library of Congress. In his prepared remarks he
said he had long struggled “to understand how it is that we could seek a
land of freedom for the people of Europe and, at the very same time,
establish a social and economic system that enslaved people who happen
not to be from Europe.”
“I have struggled to understand,” he went on, “how it is that we could
fight for independence and, at the very same time, use that newly won
independence to enslave many who had joined in the fight for independence.
“As a student of history, I have attempted to explain it historically,
but that explanation has not been all that satisfactory. That has left
me no alternative but to use my knowledge of history, and whatever other
knowledge and skills I have, to present the case for change in keeping
with the express purpose of attaining the promised goals of equality for
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