[Marxism] Report on Hong Kong meet re overseas Chinese
ffeldman at verizon.net
Sat Jul 9 11:10:52 MDT 2011
Vol. 75/No. 26 July 18, 2011
Hong Kong conference discusses overseas Chinese
Panel debates Obama's record, capitalist
crisis, Chinese in Cuban Revolution
BY MARTÍN KOPPEL
HONG KONGSome 170 people attending an international conference here June
21-22 discussed the history and place of Chinese living in countries around
The event, organized by the International Society for the Study of Chinese
Overseas (ISSCO) in conjunction with the Anthropology Department of the
Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), drew participants from 23 countries.
The largest numbers of researchers, students, and teachers were from
mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Many came from across East
Asiaincluding Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines,
Vietnam, and Myanmar. Others were from the United States, Canada, Australia,
New Zealand, France, Spain, and elsewhere in Europe.
The conference, held at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, was one of the
regional events ISSCO organizes in a different country almost every year.
Previous locations have included Havana, Cuba; Pretoria, South Africa; and
Auckland, New Zealand. The next regional gathering will be held in Seoul,
South Korea, in June 2012. The organization held an international congress
last year in Singapore; the next one is scheduled for 2013 in Vancouver,
Participants were welcomed by ISSCO president Leo Suryadinata, director of
the Chinese Heritage Centre of Singapore; ISSCO vice president and CUHK
professor Tan Chee-Beng; and officials of the university. Charles Coppel of
the University of Melbourne, Australia, gave a keynote speech focusing on
Chinese of mixed ancestry and cultureknown as Peranakan Chinesein
Indonesia as well as Malaysia and Singapore.
The three dozen panels held over two days, in either English or Chinese,
took up the history and development of the Chinese populations in various
The theme of the conference was "Overseas Chinese: Culture, Religions, and
In one panel, Teresita Ang See, secretary-treasurer of ISSCO and president
of the Kaisa Heritage Center in Manila, Philippines, described how Chinese
in that country have combined Buddhist, Confucianist, Taoist, and folk
practices with elements of Christianityas seen, for example, in ceremonies
devoted to a Chinese Virgin Mary. In another panel, Dwi Susanto of Sebelas
Maret University in Indonesia discussed the development of Confucianism as a
religion in that country.
There were panels on "Marriage and Changing Gender Roles among the Chinese
Diaspora," "Taiwan's Changing Policy toward Citizens Abroad," "Censoring the
Chinese Press in the Netherlands Indies," "Stereotypes and the Chinese
Diaspora in Spain," "Identity Challenges of the Chinese Muslims in
Malaysia," and "Family Transformation: `China Modern' in 19th Century Hong
In a panel on "Mississippi Chinese World War II Veterans' Narratives,"
Gwendolyn Gong, who teaches at CUHK, explained that her father was among
dozens of Chinese who immigrated to Mississippi shortly before World War II
and joined the U.S. armed forces, which allowed them to gain U.S.
citizenship. In describing the research project, she detailed how difficult
it was even to create a list of Mississippi Chinese who served in World War
II because of the way county, state, and federal records were kept. In
Mississippi under Jim Crow segregation, Chinese were often classified as
"colored" or "nonwhite."
China, Hong Kong, Taiwan
Some conference discussions touched on the history of Hong Kong, which the
British seized as a colony at the end of the first Opium War in 1842. Today
an international center of finance and maritime trade with a population of 7
million, Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997. It became a "Special
Administrative Region" that maintains the continuity of capitalist relations
therea setup the Chinese government calls "One Country, Two Systems."
Hong Kong residents are issued a special Beijing-authorized passport, and
many also hold a special British passport that classifies them as "British
Nationals (Overseas)" with no automatic right to live or work in the United
Kingdom. Sidney Cheung, one of the conference hosts from CUHK, got an
appreciative laugh from the audience at the opening session when he noted
that according to his passport he wasn't Chinese but "Overseas British."
Conference participants from the region described the accelerated migration
from mainland China to Hong Kong since 1997, as well as the mushrooming
travelfrom family visits to daily commutes to and from workbetween both
sides. Several young people at the conference were CUHK students who grew up
in Guangdong province in southern China; some planned to return home, while
others hoped to get jobs in Hong Kong after graduation.
Participants from Taiwan noted that today there is also much more travel
between mainland China and Taiwana consequence of the opening of the
Chinese economy to foreign investment and the loosening of the grip of the
Kuomintang-led regime in Taiwan. On June 28 the first airplane carrying
individual tourists from the People's Republic of China landed in Taipei;
previously the government there allowed visits from the mainland only
through organized tour groups. Trade relations have also expanded rapidly
between the two territories, and Taiwanese work as consultants in numerous
businesses on the mainland.
The status of Taiwan remains a point of conflict internationally. The
Beijing government continues to demand the reincorporation of Taiwan, which
was seized by bourgeois forces led by Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang
(Nationalist Party) in their retreat from the mainland after they were
defeated in the 1949 revolution that brought to power the People's Republic
of China. Taiwan's independence is backed by Washington, London, Tokyo, and
other imperialist powers.
Debate on politics in U.S. and Cuba
One of the panels sparked discussion and debate on politics in the United
States and Cuba. The panelists were Ling-chi Wang, a retired professor of
Asian American and ethnic studies at the University of California in
Berkeley; Mary-Alice Waters, president of Pathfinder Press; and Evelyn
Hu-DeHart, director of the Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in
America at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Sidney Cheung of
CUHK chaired the session.
Wang, who more than any other individual was responsible for the 1992
founding of ISSCO, spoke on "2009 as the Defining Year of Chinese American
Political Participation: Limits of Minority Participation in American
Democracy." He chronicled the record of the current U.S. administration,
contrasting it with the illusions held by many Chinese Americans, Blacks,
and others when Barack Obama was elected president. "Are African Americans
any better off today with Obama?" he asked. "No."
Likewise, Wang said, despite the significant number of Chinese Americans
appointed by the Obama administration to judicial and executive
positionsincluding three to the cabinetand the recent election of mayors
who are Chinese American in San Francisco; Oakland, California; and
elsewhere, "there are severe limits for Chinese American participation in
"We mock countries like China as being ruled by one party. Yet America is
ruled by only one party. It's the Capitalist Party, which is supported by
Democrats and Republicans alike."
He pointed to "Obama's bailout of corporate America" and to the so-called
comprehensive health-care reform, which he said benefits insurance and
medical complexes, not those who need health care. And Obama had "promised
to get us out of war, but now they're involved in yet another war in Libya."
He concluded that the only avenue for defending rights and seeking improved
conditions for ethnic minorities is through local community struggles. As an
example, he pointed to the struggle being waged to complete construction of
a community college in San Francisco's Chinatown.
"The focus now moves, from the world center of the party of capital, to the
world center of the revolutionary struggle against the party of capital,"
Waters said in opening her remarks on "The World View of Chinese in Cuba's
Revolutions." She is the editor of Our History Is Still Being Written: The
Story of Three Chinese-Cuban Generals in the Cuban Revolution by Armando
Choy, Gustavo Chui, and Moisés Sío Wong.
Waters noted that Cuba is today unique in "the near absence of
discrimination and virtual disappearance of prejudice against Cubans of
Chinese descent," who are integrated "at all levels of society, including
the highest levels of responsibility in every arena." The reason, she said,
is that in Cuba workers and farmers took political power 50 years ago and
carried out a socialist revolution.
She pointed to 150 years of revolutionary continuity in struggles there,
going back to the independence wars against Spanish colonial rule and the
international struggle to abolish slavery and bonded labor of all kinds.
Chinese toilersbrought as indentured laborers in the mid-1800splayed a
prominent role in that struggle. In the 1950s numerous Chinese Cubans
participated in the revolutionary war against the U.S.-backed Fulgencio
After the 1959 revolutionary victory, many Chinese Cubans assumed leading
responsibilities in the new government and in Cuba's internationalist
missions backing anti-imperialist struggles in Latin America and Africa,
especially in Angola.
Waters pointed to the class divisions among Chinese Cubans before the
revolution, noting that they had no single "world view," nor could have.
"The Chinese owner of a sugar mill had a different world outlook from a
Chinese cane cutter or street peddler," she said. After 1959, in line with
these divisions, capitalist businessmen who were Chinese left Cuba for the
United States and elsewhere, in proportions similar to their non-Chinese
In her talk on "Rethinking the History of Asians in the Americas," Hu-DeHart
focused on the fact that Chinese arrived in the Americas long before the
large-scale migrations from China that began in the 1840s. The first Chinese
settlements were established in the 1560s as the trans-Pacific galleon trade
developed between the Spanish colonies in present-day Mexico and the
She began her remarks, however, by urging that Obama be embraced as the
first "Asian American" president, noting that he spent part of his childhood
in Indonesia, his half-sister is part Indonesian, and his brother-in-law is
Chinese Canadian. "Obama is Asian American," she told a largely sympathetic
Responses to capitalist crisis
During the discussion period, Dean Chen of the University of California in
Santa Barbara disputed Ling-chi Wang's conclusions about Obama, arguing that
his election had "important symbolic value." Wang replied that this was true
"but symbolism doesn't put food on the table or create jobs." He noted that
many Blacks who voted for Obama, especially among the majority who are today
in worse shape economically, are "turned off" by his administration's
record. While many will cast a ballot to reelect him, large numbers will
join "the fastest-growing party in the United States, the party of
Hu-DeHart disagreed sharply with remarks by the other two panelists. "Asians
in both the U.S. and Cuba are for the most part conservative," she argued.
Taking issue with Waters, Hu-DeHart said that in Cuba "most Chinese did not
support [Fidel] Castro. They were petty-bourgeois elements who fled the
revolution and went to the U.S. They were shopkeepers and small business
owners. They were people for whom socialism was not convenient."
In response to Wang, Hu-DeHart argued that Chinese Americans "are
overwhelmingly opposed to affirmative action" and that "most of them want to
join the ranks of corporate America." Later she added that in the United
States "racism doesn't come from the propertied classes. It comes from the
white working class."
The most important fact about U.S. politics today, Waters insisted, "is how
much of a change there's been in the thinking of working people hit by the
economic crisis over the past three years, including the loss of homes,
jobs, medical coverage, savings." Today we see an openness to a clear
explanation that the problem is capitalism itself. "This is something new."
Waters responded that she disagreed with Hu-DeHart that most Chinese Cubans
fled the revolution. Contrary to the oft-repeated misperception that there
are no Chinese in Cuba anymore, "there are hundreds of thousands of Cubans
of Chinese ancestryoverwhelmingly working-classliving in Cuba today. A
minority of Chinese Cubans, predominantly from the layers involved in
commerce, left the island," Waters noted.
Wang replied to those who had taken issue with his presentation. "The
Chinese American population is bifurcated," he said. "One part is well off,
while another part exists at the margins." The problem is that Democratic
politicians such as Obama and U.S. commerce secretary Gary Locke, who is
Chinese American and was recently appointed U.S. ambassador to China, will
"continue to represent corporate interests," Wang said.
The chairperson extended the lively debate beyond the allotted time, but
there were still many hands in the air when he announced that time was up.
The informal discussion continued into the lunch break.
Following the Hong Kong gathering, two groups of conference participants
took part in multiday tours of historic sites in southern China. One visited
the city of Quanzhou in Fujian province; the other traveled to the cities of
Guangzhou (formerly Canton) and Kaiping in Guangdong province. Both tours
focused on places from which many Chinese emigrated to cities around the
world and the impact on their native villages as they returned.
Patrick Brown, Linda Harris, and Mary-Alice Waters contributed to this
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