[Marxism] U.S., Israel developed Flame computer virus to slow Iranian nuclear efforts

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Wed Jun 20 06:59:08 MDT 2012


http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-israel-developed-computer-virus-to-slow-iranian-nuclear-efforts-officials-say/2012/06/19/gJQA6xBPoV_story.html

U.S., Israel developed Flame computer virus to slow Iranian 
nuclear efforts, officials say
By Ellen Nakashima, Greg Miller and Julie Tate, Published: June 19

The United States and Israel jointly developed a sophisticated 
computer virus nicknamed Flame that collected intelligence in 
preparation for cyber-sabotage aimed at slowing Iran’s ability to 
develop a nuclear weapon, according to Western officials with 
knowledge of the effort.

The massive piece of malware secretly mapped and monitored Iran’s 
computer networks, sending back a steady stream of intelligence to 
prepare for a cyber­warfare campaign, according to the officials.

The effort, involving the National Security Agency, the CIA and 
Israel’s military, has included the use of destructive software 
such as the Stuxnet virus to cause malfunctions in Iran’s 
nuclear-enrichment equipment.

The emerging details about Flame provide new clues to what is 
thought to be the first sustained campaign of cyber-sabotage 
against an adversary of the United States.

“This is about preparing the battlefield for another type of 
covert action,” said one former high-ranking U.S. intelligence 
official, who added that Flame and Stuxnet were elements of a 
broader assault that continues today. “Cyber-collection against 
the Iranian program is way further down the road than this.”

Flame came to light last month after Iran detected a series of 
cyberattacks on its oil industry. The disruption was directed by 
Israel in a unilateral operation that apparently caught its 
American partners off guard, according to several U.S. and Western 
officials who spoke on the condition of anonymity.

There has been speculation that Washington had a role in 
developing Flame, but the collaboration on the virus between the 
United States and Israel has not been previously confirmed. 
Commercial security researchers reported last week that Flame 
contained some of the same code as Stuxnet. Experts described the 
overlap as DNA-like evidence that the two sets of malware were 
parallel projects run by the same entity.

Spokesmen for the CIA, the NSA and the Office of the Director of 
National Intelligence, as well as the Israeli Embassy in 
Washington, declined to comment.

The virus is among the most sophisticated and subversive pieces of 
malware to be exposed to date. Experts said the program was 
designed to replicate across even highly secure networks, then 
control everyday computer functions to send secrets back to its 
creators. The code could activate computer microphones and 
cameras, log keyboard strokes, take screen shots, extract 
geo­location data from images, and send and receive commands and 
data through Bluetooth wireless technology.

Flame was designed to do all this while masquerading as a routine 
Microsoft software update; it evaded detection for several years 
by using a sophisticated program to crack an encryption algorithm.

“This is not something that most security researchers have the 
skills or resources to do,” said Tom Parker, chief technology 
officer for FusionX, a security firm that specializes in 
simulating state-sponsored cyberattacks. He said he does not know 
who was behind the virus. “You’d expect that of only the most 
advanced cryptomathematicians, such as those working at NSA.”

Conventional plus cyber

Flame was developed at least five years ago as part of a 
classified effort code-named Olympic Games, according to officials 
familiar with U.S. cyber-operations and experts who have 
scrutinized its code. The U.S.-Israeli collaboration was intended 
to slow Iran’s nuclear program, reduce the pressure for a 
conventional military attack and extend the timetable for 
diplomacy and sanctions.

The cyberattacks augmented conventional sabotage efforts by both 
countries, including inserting flawed centrifuge parts and other 
components into Iran’s nuclear supply chain.

The best-known cyberweapon let loose on Iran was Stuxnet, a name 
coined by researchers in the antivirus industry who discovered it 
two years ago. It infected a specific type of industrial 
controller at Iran’s uranium-
enrichment plant in Natanz, causing almost 1,000 centrifuges to 
spin out of control. The damage occurred gradually, over months, 
and Iranian officials initially thought it was the result of 
incompetence.

The scale of the espionage and sabotage effort “is proportionate 
to the problem that’s trying to be resolved,” the former 
intelligence official said, referring to the Iranian nuclear 
program. Although Stuxnet and Flame infections can be countered, 
“it doesn’t mean that other tools aren’t in play or performing 
effectively,” he said.

To develop these tools, the United States relies on two of its 
elite spy agencies. The NSA, known mainly for its electronic 
eavesdropping and code-breaking capabilities, has extensive 
expertise in developing malicious code that can be aimed at U.S. 
adversaries, including Iran. The CIA lacks the NSA’s 
sophistication in building malware but is deeply involved in the 
cyber-campaign.

The CIA’s Information Operations Center is second only to the 
agency’s Counterterrorism Center in size. The IOC, as it is known, 
performs an array of espionage functions, including extracting 
data from laptops seized in counter­terrorism raids. But the 
center specializes in computer penetrations that require closer 
contact with the target, such as using spies or unwitting 
contractors to spread a contagion via a thumb drive.

Both agencies analyze the intelligence obtained through malware 
such as Flame and have continued to develop new weapons even as 
recent attacks have been exposed.

Flame’s discovery shows the importance of mapping networks and 
collecting intelligence on targets as the prelude to an attack, 
especially in closed computer networks. Officials say gaining and 
keeping access to a network is 99 percent of the challenge.

“It is far more difficult to penetrate a network, learn about it, 
reside on it forever and extract information from it without being 
detected than it is to go in and stomp around inside the network 
causing damage,” said Michael V. Hayden, a former NSA director and 
CIA director who left office in 2009. He declined to discuss any 
operations he was involved with during his time in government.

Years in the making

The effort to delay Iran’s nuclear program using cyber-techniques 
began in the mid-2000s, during President George W. Bush’s second 
term. At that point it consisted mainly of gathering intelligence 
to identify potential targets and create tools to disrupt them. In 
2008, the program went operational and shifted from military to 
CIA control, former officials said.

Despite their collaboration on developing the malicious code, the 
United States and Israel have not always coordinated their 
attacks. Israel’s April assaults on Iran’s Oil Ministry and 
oil-export facilities caused only minor disruptions. The episode 
led Iran to investigate and ultimately discover Flame.

“The virus penetrated some fields — one of them was the oil 
sector,” Gholam Reza Jalali, an Iranian military cyber official, 
told Iranian state radio in May. “Fortunately, we detected and 
controlled this single incident.”

Some U.S. intelligence officials were dismayed that Israel’s 
unilateral incursion led to the discovery of the virus, prompting 
counter­measures.

The disruptions led Iran to ask a Russian security firm and a 
Hungarian cyber-lab for help, according to U.S. and international 
officials familiar with the incident.

Last week, researchers with Kaspersky Lab, the Russian security 
firm, reported their conclusion that Flame — a name they came up 
with — was created by the same group or groups that built Stuxnet. 
Kaspersky declined to comment on whether it was approached by Iran.

“We are now 100 percent sure that the Stuxnet and Flame groups 
worked together,” said Roel Schouwenberg, a Boston-based senior 
researcher with Kaspersky Lab.

The firm also determined that the Flame malware predates Stuxnet. 
“It looks like the Flame platform was used as a kickstarter of 
sorts to get the Stuxnet project going,” Schouwenberg said.

Staff writer Joby Warrick contributed to this report.




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