[Marxism] Chin Peng, Malaysian Rebel, Dies at 88
lnp3 at panix.com
Tue Sep 17 07:51:43 MDT 2013
NY Times September 16, 2013
Chin Peng, Malaysian Rebel, Dies at 88
By DOUGLAS MARTIN
Chin Peng, a Communist guerrilla leader whose tenacious, bloody
struggles for an independent Communist Malaysia pitted him against
Japanese invaders, British colonialists and finally the government of
what had become his own newly sovereign nation, died in exile on Monday
in Bangkok. He was 88.
Agence France-Presse, the French news agency, said the cause was cancer,
quoting a retired Thai military commander who had acted as a liaison
between Mr. Chin and the authorities. Mr. Chin had lived in Thailand for
Mr. Chin was the last surviving revolutionary leader to have
successfully fought for independence from colonial rulers in Asia after
World War II — a cohort that included Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Sukarno in
Indonesia, Aung San in Burma (now Myanmar) and Norodom Sihanouk in
Cambodia. When he finally laid down his arms in 1989, Mr. Chin was
called “the world’s senior surviving guerrilla.”
Chin Peng was the nom de guerre of Ong Boon Hua, who had joined with the
British to battle Japanese troops after they invaded what was then
British Malaya in 1941. His honors for heroism included the Order of the
But after the war, as the newly named head of Malaya’s Communist Party,
he ordered an armed insurrection against the British colonial rulers,
and when Malaya became independent of Britain in 1957, the insurgency
morphed into a fight against the new government.
(Malaysia, consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, came into
being in 1963. Singapore became independent of Malaysia in 1965.)
“I suppose I am the last of the region’s old revolutionary leaders,” Mr.
Chin wrote in his 2003 memoir, “My Side of History. “It was my choice to
lead from the shadows, away from the limelight.”
He may not have actually had a choice. By the mid-1950s, the British had
effectively put down the Communist offensive, although a final peace
agreement would not be signed until 1989. Mr. Chin disappeared, although
his voice was heard on broadcasts of the clandestine Malaysian
Revolution Radio. Then he fell silent, and it was assumed that years of
living in the jungle had taken their final toll on him.
It turned out that in 1960 he fled to China, the principal backer of the
Malaysian Communists, who themselves were mainly ethnic Chinese. He
later moved to Thailand. After the 1989 peace pact, he tried to return
to Malaysia but was refused entry.
Ong Boon Hua was reported to have been born on Oct. 21, 1924, in the
Malaysian state of Perak. His father, an immigrant from Fujian Province
in southeast China, made a good living selling and repairing bicycles,
and sent him to English-language schools, where he excelled. Attracted
to Communism as a means of fighting prejudice against Chinese-Malayans,
he joined party youth organizations at 15.
Soon he left school and went to work for the party, which assigned him
to lead three anti-Japanese organizations for students, teachers and
shop assistants. After the Japanese invaded in December 1941, he became
a liaison to British commandos. The Associated Press reported in 1989
that John Davis, a British officer, said of him, “Unusual ability, and
commanded the natural respect of men without fuss or formality.”
After the war, Lai Teck, secretary general of the Malayan Communist
Party, fled with most of its money after collaborating with both the
Japanese and the British. Mr. Chin was placed in charge of investigating
him, and was appointed to replace him in 1948 at age 24.
He ordered an armed struggle, perhaps on instructions from Moscow, and
began by attacking two rubber plantations and methodically executing
three planters. Twelve years of violence, which came to be known as the
Malayan Emergency, ensued. A $250,000 reward was offered for information
leading to Mr. Chin’s capture.
At the height of the conflict, some 70,000 British, Australian, New
Zealand, Fijian, Gurkha and other British Commonwealth troops fought
about 10,000 guerrillas. More than 10,000 fighters and civilians died
between 1948 and 1960. Britain rescinded the Order of the British Empire
it had granted him.
“I make no apologies for seeking to replace such an odious system with a
form of Marxist socialism,” Mr. Chin wrote. “Colonial exploitation,
irrespective of who were the masters, Japanese or British, was morally
In 1955, Mr. Chin emerged from the jungle to negotiate with Malayan
officials at a schoolhouse near the Thai-Malay border. Talks broke down
after Malayan negotiators refused Mr. Chin’s demand to be part of a
coalition government. Though the point was largely moot after Malaya’s
independence in 1957, fighting sputtered on, with periodic escalations.
When it finally ended in 1989, some 1,200 guerrillas were allowed under
the peace pact to returned to civilian life.
Mr. Chin thought the 1989 agreement provided for his own return to
Malaysia, but he was denied in court on the grounds that he could not
prove he was Malaysian, having lost his birth and citizenship
certificates. Many said the real reason was a lingering resentment over
Information about his survivors was not available. Mr. Chin’s wife,
Khoon Wah, is deceased. They had two sons. The Malaysian police have
refused to allow his remains to be returned to his home country.
More information about the Marxism