[Marxism] How the US quashed an arms shipment to the FSA

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Sun May 25 07:50:34 MDT 2014


Hat tip to Paul Woodward's "War in Context" for this. 
(http://warincontext.org/2014/05/24/how-ukrainian-arms-dealing-connects-to-syrias-bloody-civil-war/)

---

All the ingredients are there for a proper arms deal: A former 
government official with connections to the military-industrial complex. 
A stockpile of Soviet arms in Ukraine. Soldiers in Syria with a yen for 
ammo and cash to burn. The biggest problem? Getting the arms from 
eastern Europe to the battleground without alerting international 
authorities or tipping off your enemies.
+

The story isn’t about Russia or the United States. It’s about Russia and 
the United States.
+

This week, the Wall Street Journal shone a light (behind a paywall but 
reproduced below) on one American’s thwarted effort to run guns into 
Syria for the anti-regime Free Syrian Army. Last fall, analysts at the 
Center for Advanced Defense Studies (C4ADS) in Washington assembled 
public data to identify a network of businesses (pdf) in Ukraine and 
Russia at the heart of Russia’s efforts to arm the Syrian regime. The 
two stories have a lot in common, with a key difference being that 
Russia’s government is a lot more invested in arming its side of the 
conflict.

full: 
http://qz.com/211603/how-ukrainian-arms-dealing-connects-to-syrias-bloody-civil-war/

---

Wall Street Journal, May 19 2014
Shadowy World: Private U.S. Group Sought To Arm Syrian Rebels
Nissenbaum, Dion. Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition [New York, N.Y]

WASHINGTON -- An urgent plea for arms by Syrian rebels last summer posed 
a quandary for the Obama administration.

The rebels were facing setback after setback on the battlefield. The 
administration backed their goal of unseating the Syrian government, but 
worried about U.S.-supplied arms making their way to fighters linked to 
al Qaeda. In the end, the U.S. approved a modest arms-supply effort that 
was slow to gain traction.

For one group of Americans, that wasn't enough. On their own, the 
Americans offered to provide 70,000 Russian-made assault rifles and 21 
million rounds of ammunition to the Free Syrian Army, a major infusion 
they said could be a game changer. With a tentative nod from the rebels, 
the group set about arranging a weapons shipment from Eastern Europe, to 
be paid for by a Saudi prince.

The weapons never made it to Syria. As the private group worked to 
complete its deal, a surprise showdown in Jordan forced it to put its 
plan on hold.

The story of the aborted weapons-supply effort, confirmed by people 
directly involved, provides a peek inside the normally hidden world of 
private arms contracting. This one involves an unusual protagonist: a 
former high-ranking official at the U.S. Defense Department. And waiting 
in the wings was the founder of the controversial security firm 
Blackwater Worldwide.

The idea for the arms deal evolved early last summer at a politically 
charged time. The Free Syrian Army, under siege both by Syrian 
government forces and by more-radical rebels with a jihadist agenda, 
made an urgent plea in Washington for heavy-duty military support. It 
wanted antitank missiles, shoulder-fired antiaircraft weapons and a 
trove of ammunition to counter Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's forces.

When the U.S. agreed only to a very limited arms initiative, the private 
group approached the rebels with its own proposal. Making the pitch was 
Joseph E. Schmitz, who from 2002 to 2005 served as Pentagon inspector 
general and wanted to help the moderate Syrian rebels.

"These guys are going to get killed. They can't even defend themselves," 
Mr. Schmitz said in an interview earlier this spring. The Syrian 
conflict has claimed about 140,000 lives and created a vast refugee crisis.

"I'm just trying to be helpful to some people that our government 
supports," Mr. Schmitz said.

He told the Free Syrian Army's leader at the time, Gen. Salim Idris, 
that his group had immediate access to a large supply of assault rifles 
in Ukraine and tons of ammunition in another Eastern European country.

To Gen. Idris, it sounded almost too good to be true. If the private 
group could get the shipments approved, he told Mr. Schmitz, the Free 
Syrian Army would welcome the weaponry.

"That was a very exciting plan," Gen. Idris said by telephone from Syria 
in March. "We are in most need of weapons. And if we can arrange it 
officially under the law, we are most interested."

His weapons, Mr. Schmitz said, could enable the moderate rebels to 
"defend themselves against genocide. That was the worry: The threats 
were from both these al Qaeda guys coming into Syria and from President 
Assad."

He added: "I really felt for Gen. Idris. He seemed like a stable, 
moderate freedom fighter."

Mr. Schmitz's group crafted legal international documents, known as 
end-user certificates, to be signed by countries willing to take part in 
the deal. "The ball was on the tee," said one person in his group.

Private arms shipments such as this aren't out of the question. About 
1,800 people are registered with the State Department as arms brokers. 
But before they can secure such deals, they need U.S. government approval.

Mr. Schmitz said his group included two U.S-registered arms brokers and 
had every intention of going through proper channels to get State 
Department approval.

Before approaching the Syrian rebels last summer, Mr. Schmitz said, he 
called the State Department's Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs and 
discussed his arms-supply idea. According to the State Department, the 
person Mr. Schmitz said he spoke to was a low-level assistant who 
doesn't recall the conversation.

Though arms brokers must seek the department's approval before 
negotiating deals, "there's no clear guidance on when activity becomes 
brokerage activity," Mr. Schmitz said. "Just because you have an idea 
and talk to someone about an idea doesn't make it brokering." He said 
the talks never matured to the point that the group needed State 
Department approval.

Richard F. Grimmett, a Congressional Research Service retiree who spent 
decades analyzing the arms trade for lawmakers, was critical of the plan 
when it was described to him.

"The whole reason the U.S. has regulatory regimes as it does is to make 
sure that someone can't go off on their own initiative and engage in 
these kinds of activities without review and approval of the 
government," Mr. Grimmett said. "If you act without clearing your action 
with the government, you risk potentially serious consequences," 
including fines and prison time.

"What you're dealing with here is the shadowy world of arms brokering 
and arms trafficking," Mr. Grimmett said.

Mr. Schmitz said the arms were to be paid for by a member of the Saudi 
royal family, whom he declined to name.

The Saudi embassy in Washington said it couldn't comment without knowing 
the name of the prince said to be involved. Saudi Arabia has tried to 
prevent people from stepping into the Syrian conflict to arm competing 
forces, said Nail Al-Jubeir, a spokesman for the embassy in Washington.

"The Saudis are concerned that the war may turn into a private war where 
private individuals are arming their own groups and, the next thing you 
know, it looks like Lebanon" during that country's civil war, Mr. 
Al-Jubeir said. "We didn't want that to happen in Syria."

As the talks evolved last summer, Mr. Schmitz told members of the Syrian 
opposition that another figure might be willing to help: Erik Prince, 
the founder of Blackwater and a onetime Central Intelligence Agency asset.

Blackwater became a polarizing U.S. contractor during the Iraq war 
because of its aggressive efforts to protect U.S. diplomats in that 
country. After Blackwater guards were involved in a 2007 shootout in a 
Baghdad square that left at least 14 Iraqi civilians dead, Iraq barred 
Blackwater, and U.S. prosecutors charged some of the company's guards 
with manslaughter. The guards said they had come under attack.

After years of legal maneuvering, three guards are expected to go to 
trial for manslaughter in Washington next month. Another was charged 
with murder earlier this month.All have pleaded not guilty, a lawyer for 
one of them said.

Mr. Prince sold Blackwater several years ago, and the company changed 
its name after he left. He then got involved in a variety of ventures 
including an effort to set up a rapid-response team for United Arab 
Emirates, which was shut down after the project became publicly known.

In January, Mr. Prince released his memoir and accused the U.S. 
government of making Blackwater a scapegoat for its policy failures in 
Iraq. Mr. Prince has defended the Blackwater guards involved in the 
shooting, saying they were doing what was required to try to get an 
American safely out of harm's way.

In an interview, Mr. Prince said he was willing to help in Syria, but 
only if the plan went further by training the rebels and directly 
leading them into battle.

Simply pumping in arms, he said, was a "dumb idea." Mr. Prince said Arab 
countries that have taken the lead in arming Syrian rebels have 
mismanaged the effort by financing weapons without providing proper 
oversight.

"No one can phone this one in," he said. "It's Irregular Warfare 101. 
You must be willing to put boots on the ground -- uniformed or hired 
professional."

It is a role he is still willing to play, Mr. Prince said.

"I would be happy to go and build and organize a force to defend their 
freedom, because there are a lot of Sunnis and Shias and Baha'is and 
Alawites and Christians that are just getting screwed, and enough is 
enough," he said.

Given Blackwater's history, the mention of Mr. Prince's potential role 
added to concerns by some in the Syrian rebel camp about Mr. Schmitz's plan.

Some members of the Syrian opposition were skeptical of the Schmitz 
group's motives and concerned about potential blowback from involvement 
with any arms deal that could be linked to Blackwater.

During Mr. Schmitz's years as Pentagon inspector general during the Bush 
administration, he oversaw investigations of defense contractors 
involved in the war in Iraq. At one point, lawmakers led by Sen. Charles 
Grassley (R., Iowa) launched a probe of whether Mr. Schmitz had blocked 
two criminal investigations. Mr. Schmitz said these were "fallacious, 
false allegations." An inquiry by an executive branch body set up to 
oversee the work of inspectors general concluded Mr. Schmitz had done 
nothing wrong.

Mr. Schmitz left the Pentagon job in 2005 to become general counsel at 
Blackwater's parent company, staying until 2008.

Last summer, as his team continued laying the groundwork to arm Syrian 
rebels, a Saudi member of the team was approached by a CIA 
representative in Jordan, who told him to put the brakes on the plan, 
according to two people involved in the effort.

Mr. Schmitz said he was "shocked and disappointed" that the U.S. 
government stepped in to quash the deal.

The CIA declined to comment. The National Security Council defended the 
administration's Syria policy. "The United States is committed to 
building the capacity of the moderate opposition, including through the 
provision of assistance to vetted members of the moderate armed 
opposition," said an NSC spokeswoman, Bernadette Meehan. "As we have 
consistently said, we are not going to detail every single type of our 
assistance."

Weeks after the showdown in Jordan, the debate about arming Syrian 
rebels took on a new cast. Up to 1,400 people near Damascus died in 
poison-gas attacks that the U.S. and Arab and European nations blamed on 
Mr. Assad's government. He accused the rebels of using the deadly gas. 
The Obama administration threatened to attack Syria, backing down when 
Mr. Assad agreed to destroy his chemical arsenal.

As debate over the proper Western response to the gas attacks was 
unfolding, talks on Mr. Schmitz's private arms proposal ground to a 
halt. Efforts to secure necessary international support faltered, and 
funding for the deal fell through, according to people working on the plan.

Last week, leaders of the Syrian opposition met with President Barack 
Obama in Washington as part of a renewed appeal for more-powerful 
weapons. The administration still declines to provide antiaircraft 
missiles but is backing a modest pilot program to supply a select group 
of fighters with antitank TOW missiles.

What effect these will have remains to be seen. This month,[ Syrian 
opposition forces had to retreat from Homs, a city seen as the rebels' 
spiritual capital.

Gen. Idris said in the interview that the fighters could still use the 
arms Mr. Schmitz offered to supply, and Mr. Schmitz said he remained 
ready to push the deal forward.

"If the U.S. government wants us to do it, I'm glad to try to get it 
going again," Mr. Schmitz said. "But I'm not going to do anything that 
smacks of sneaky or illegal."



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