[Marxism] Fwd: What on Earth is the Modern World-System? Foodgetting and Territory in the Modern Era and Beyond | Friedman | Journal of World-Systems Research

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Sun Oct 2 15:48:32 MDT 2016


The project of a common world cuisine, the culinary equivalent of English
as a world language, is embodied in the fast-food hamburger (Harris
1985: 121; Ritzer 1993). The history of the hamburger and its ingredients,
wheat and beef cattle, also traces the larger story of reconstellation and
suppression of ecosystems, from the forests of Europe to the grasslands of
North America, to the rainforests of South America.

The fast food hamburger condenses much of the simplification of
human diet, of the underlying complexity of the agrofood system, and of
the still deeper simplification of ecosystems to supply wheat and beef. 
Let us
begin with some common distinctions. Is the hamburger an American food
imposed on the world, an edible enticement of cultural imperialism? One
could say so. It was invented in the U.S. despite its Germanic name and its
culinary roots in European wheat and beef cuisines, specifically fried disks
of ground fl esh. It followed bottled bubbly flavoured water (Coca Cola and
Pepsi-Cola, by name) into the local street food markets of the world. Like
the early wordless television advertisements intended for world consumption,
showing happy, healthy, frolicking, youthful people drinking Coke or
Pepsi, the commercial propaganda for hamburgers devotes considerable 
artistry,
technique, and money to create images of luxury and freedom designed
to lure humans all over the world into ingesting the food of America and
valuing it above the unglamourous cuisines of their ancestors.

full: http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/jwsr/article/view/214/226

---

As stupid, irrational and self-destructive a system capitalism is, it 
reached new depths when it fostered the development of cattle- ranching 
in Central America in the early 1970s.

The growth of McDonald's, Burger King and other fast food outlets had 
created an insatiable demand for beef. These types of restaurants had no 
need for the choice, fat-stuffed grain-fed beef that were found in super 
markets. They could get by on the sort of tougher, lower- grade beef 
that was typical of cattle that subsisted on grass alone, since the meat 
would be ground up anyhow. The free-range "criollo" cattle of Central 
America made a perfect fit for this expanding market.

Historically, the cattle industry in Central America was a very low- 
tech operation. Cowboys would drive a herd to a major city where 
slaughter-houses could be found. The cattle would be cut up and sent out 
to public markets, often in the open air and unrefrigerated, where a 
customer would select a piece of meat off of the carcass. However, to 
satisfy the external market, a more modern mode of production had to be 
adopted. Firstly, roads needed to be created to transport the cattle by 
truck from the countryside. Secondly, packing houses had to be created 
near ports to prepare the beef for export. Foreign investors made road- 
building possible, just the way that British capital made railroads 
possible in the US for identical reasons. The "Alliance for Progress" 
aided in the creation of such infrastructure as well.

The packing-houses themselves were built by local capitalists with some 
assistance from the outside. It was these middle-men, who stood between 
rancher and importer, that cashed in on the beef bonanza. The Somoza 
family were movers and shakers in the packing-house industry. As 
monopolists, they could paid the rancher meager prices and sell the 
processed beef at a premium price since demand for beef was at an 
all-time high.

In addition, the Somoza family used its profits and loans from foreign 
investors to buy up huge swaths of land in Nicaragua to create cattle 
ranches. They had already acquired 51 ranches before the beef-export 
boom, but by 1979, after two decades of export-led growth, their 
holdings and those of their cronies had expanded to more than 2 million 
acres, more than half of which was in the best grazing sectors. It was 
these properties and the packing-houses that became nationalized 
immediately after the FSLN triumph.

full: http://www.columbia.edu/~lnp3/mydocs/ecology/cattle.htm



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