[Marxism] WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents

Louis Proyect lnp3 at panix.com
Wed Mar 8 07:42:15 MST 2017


NY Times, Mar. 8 2017
WikiLeaks Releases Trove of Alleged C.I.A. Hacking Documents
By SCOTT SHANE, MATTHEW ROSENBERG and ANDREW W. LEHREN

WASHINGTON — In what appears to be the largest leak of C.I.A documents 
in history, WikiLeaks released on Tuesday thousands of pages describing 
sophisticated software tools and techniques used by the agency to break 
into smartphones, computers and even Internet-connected televisions.

The documents amount to a detailed, highly technical catalog of tools. 
They include instructions for compromising a wide range of common 
computer tools for use in spying: the online calling service Skype; 
Wi-Fi networks; documents in PDF format; and even commercial antivirus 
programs of the kind used by millions of people to protect their computers.

A program called Wrecking Crew explains how to crash a targeted 
computer, and another tells how to steal passwords using the 
autocomplete function on Internet Explorer. Other programs were called 
CrunchyLimeSkies, ElderPiggy, AngerQuake and McNugget.

The document dump was the latest coup for the antisecrecy organization 
and a serious blow to the C.I.A., which uses its hacking abilities to 
carry out espionage against foreign targets.

The initial release, which WikiLeaks said was only the first installment 
in a larger collection of secret C.I.A. material, included 7,818 web 
pages with 943 attachments, many of them partly redacted by WikiLeaks 
editors to avoid disclosing the actual code for cyberweapons. The entire 
archive of C.I.A. material consists of several hundred million lines of 
computer code, the group claimed.

In one revelation that may especially trouble the tech world if 
confirmed, WikiLeaks said that the C.I.A. and allied intelligence 
services have managed to compromise both Apple and Android smartphones, 
allowing their officers to bypass the encryption on popular services 
such as Signal, WhatsApp and Telegram. According to WikiLeaks, 
government hackers can penetrate smartphones and collect “audio and 
message traffic before encryption is applied.”

Unlike the National Security Agency documents Edward J. Snowden gave to 
journalists in 2013, they do not include examples of how the tools have 
been used against actual foreign targets. That could limit the damage of 
the leak to national security. But the breach was highly embarrassing 
for an agency that depends on secrecy.

Robert M. Chesney, a specialist in national security law at the 
University of Texas at Austin, likened the C.I.A. trove to National 
Security Agency hacking tools disclosed last year by a group calling 
itself the Shadow Brokers.

“If this is true, it says that N.S.A. isn’t the only one with an 
advanced, persistent problem with operational security for these tools,” 
Mr. Chesney said. “We’re getting bit time and again.”

There was no public confirmation of the authenticity of the documents, 
which were produced by the C.I.A.’s Center for Cyber Intelligence and 
are mostly dated from 2013 to 2016. But one government official said the 
documents were real, and a former intelligence officer said some of the 
code names for C.I.A. programs, an organization chart and the 
description of a C.I.A. hacking base appeared to be genuine.

The agency appeared to be taken by surprise by the document dump on 
Tuesday morning. A C.I.A. spokesman, Dean Boyd, said, “We do not comment 
on the authenticity or content of purported intelligence documents.”

In some regard, the C.I.A. documents confirmed and filled in the details 
on abilities that have long been suspected in technical circles.

“The people who know a lot about security and hacking assumed that the 
C.I.A. was at least investing in these capabilities, and if they 
weren’t, then somebody else was — China, Iran, Russia, as well as a lot 
of other private actors,” said Beau Woods, the deputy director of the 
Cyber Statecraft Initiative at the Atlantic Council in Washington. He 
said the disclosures may raise concerns in the United States and abroad 
about “the trustworthiness of technology where cybersecurity can impact 
human life and public safety.”

There is no evidence that the C.I.A. hacking tools have been used 
against Americans. But Ben Wizner, the director of the American Civil 
Liberties Union’s Speech, Privacy, and Technology Project, said the 
documents suggest that the government has deliberately allowed 
vulnerabilities in phones and other devices to persist to make spying 
easier.

“Those vulnerabilities will be exploited not just by our security 
agencies, but by hackers and governments around the world,” Mr. Wizner 
said. “Patching security holes immediately, not stockpiling them, is the 
best way to make everyone’s digital life safer.”

WikiLeaks did not identify the source of the documents, which it called 
Vault 7, but said they had been “circulated among former U.S. government 
hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has 
provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive.”

WikiLeaks said the source, in a statement, set out policy questions that 
“urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the C.I.A.’s 
hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of 
public oversight of the agency.” The source, the group said, “wishes to 
initiate a public debate about the security, creation, use, 
proliferation and democratic control of cyberweapons.”

But James Lewis, an expert on cybersecurity at the Center for Strategic 
and International Studies in Washington, raised another possibility: 
that a foreign state, most likely Russia, stole the documents by hacking 
or other means and delivered them to WikiLeaks, which may not know how 
they were obtained. Mr. Lewis noted that, according to American 
intelligence agencies, Russia hacked Democratic targets during the 
presidential campaign and gave thousands of emails to WikiLeaks for 
publication.

“I think a foreign power is much more likely the source of these 
documents than a conscience-stricken C.I.A. whistle-blower,” Mr. Lewis said.

At a time of increasing concern about the privacy of calls and messages, 
the revelations did not suggest that the C.I.A. can actually break the 
encryption used by popular messaging apps. Instead, by penetrating the 
user’s phone, the agency can make the encryption irrelevant by 
intercepting messages and calls before their content is encrypted, or, 
on the other end, after messages are decrypted.

WikiLeaks, which has sometimes been accused of recklessly leaking 
information that could do harm, said it had redacted names and other 
identifying information from the collection. It said it was not 
releasing the computer code for actual, usable weapons “until a 
consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the C.I.A.’s 
program and how such ‘weapons’ should be analyzed, disarmed and published.”

The codes names used for projects revealed in the WikiLeaks documents 
appear to reflect the likely demographic of the cyberexperts employed by 
the C.I.A. — that is, young and male. There are numerous references to 
“Harry Potter,” Pokémon and Adderall, the drug used to treat hyperactivity.

A number of projects were named after whiskey brands. Some were high-end 
single malt scotches, such as Laphroaig and Ardbeg. Others were from 
more pedestrian labels, such as Wild Turkey, which was described by its 
programmers, in mock dictionary style, as “(n.) A animal of the avian 
variety that has not been domesticated. Also a type of alcohol with a 
high proof (151).”

Some of the details of the C.I.A. programs might have come from the plot 
of a spy novel for the cyberage, revealing numerous highly classified — 
and, in some cases, exotic — hacking programs. One program, code-named 
Weeping Angel, uses Samsung “smart” televisions as covert listening 
devices. According to the WikiLeaks news release, even when it appears 
to be turned off, the television “operates as a bug, recording 
conversations in the room and sending them over the internet to a covert 
C.I.A. server.”

The release said the program was developed in cooperation with British 
intelligence.

If C.I.A. agents did manage to hack the smart TVs, they would not be the 
only ones. Since their release, internet-connected televisions have been 
a focus for hackers and cybersecurity experts, many of whom see the 
sets’ ability to record and transmit conversations as a potentially 
dangerous vulnerability.

In early 2015, Samsung started to include in the fine print terms of 
service for its smart TVs a warning that the television sets could 
capture background conversations. “Please be aware that if your spoken 
words include personal or other sensitive information, that information 
will be among the data captured and transmitted to a third party through 
your use of Voice Recognition,” the warning said.

Another program described in the documents, named Umbrage, is a 
voluminous library of cyberattack techniques that the C.I.A. has 
collected from malware produced by other countries, including Russia. 
According to the WikiLeaks release, the large number of techniques 
allows the C.I.A. to mask the origin of some of its attacks and confuse 
forensic investigators.

The WikiLeaks material includes lists of software tools that the C.I.A. 
uses to create exploits and malware to carrying out hacking. Many of the 
tools are those used by developers around the world: coding languages, 
such as Python, and tools like Sublime Text, a program used to write 
code, and Git, a tool that helps developers collaborate.

But the agency also appears to rely on software designed specifically 
for spies, such as Ghidra, which in one of the documents is described as 
“a reverse engineering environment created by the N.S.A.”

The Vault 7 release marks the latest in a series of huge leaks that have 
changed the landscape for government and corporate secrecy.

In scale, the Vault 7 archive appears to fall into the same category as 
the biggest leaks of classified information in recent years, including 
the quarter-million diplomatic cables taken by Chelsea Manning, the 
former Army intelligence analyst, and given to WikiLeaks in 2010, and 
the hundreds of thousands of National Security Agency documents taken by 
Mr. Snowden in 2013.

In the business world, the so-called Panama Papers and several other 
large-volume leaks have laid bare the details of secret offshore 
companies used by wealthy and corrupt people to hide their assets.

Both government and corporate leaks have been made possible by the ease 
of downloading, storing and transferring millions of documents in 
seconds or minutes, a sea change from the use of slow photocopying for 
some earlier leaks, including the Pentagon Papers in 1971.

Follow Matthew Rosenberg on Twitter at @AllMattNYT

Scott Shane and Matthew Rosenberg reported from Washington, and Andrew 
W. Lehren from New York. Mark Mazzetti contributed reporting.




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